A-life The modeling of complex, lifelike behavior in computer programs. A-life forms can evolve and produce behaviors not contained within rules set by the programmers. (Source:
A/B split test A test used to test two versions of one element to determine which is most effective, measured against key performance indicators, such as click through or conversion rates. For example, two headings or two images or two types of button might be tested in a mailing, press ad or online execution.
AAA server AAA stands for authentication, authorization and accounting security services. The server provides these services.
Abandon In e-commerce when a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it prior to completing the transaction (Source:
Above the fold A term derived from printed media, indicating which online content, such as a banner advertisement or part of a web page, is immediately visible to the viewer without a need to scroll.
Above-the-line Out-of-date jargon that is best avoided. The term derived from traditional accounting practice that treated advertising through broadcast media, such as television, radio or published media, such as newspapers, as ‘above-the-line’ expenditure. Other advertising, such as direct marketing, was accounted for ‘below-the-line’.
Acceptable use policy A computer policy which outlines the purpose as well as who and how people may use the resource. It will include the policy on security and privacy.
Access To use a program to reach the memory and to read from and write to that memory.
Access control A way of protecting confidential data on a computer (or computer network) from unauthorized access. (Source:
Access number A telephone number you use to dial into your local Internet Service Provider (ISP). Many, but not all, ISPs are telecommunications providers. To connect to the internet you must first establish an account with an ISP in your area.
Access platform A method customers use to access digital media; the term may refer to hardware and/or a browser.
Access profile Information held on an AAA server that is used for authentication, accounting and access of a user.
Access provider An access provider is any organization that arranges for an individual or an organization to have access to the internet. Access providers are generally divided into two classes: Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Online Service Providers (OSPs). ISPs can be local businesses that pay for a high-speed connection to one of the companies (such as AT&T, Sprint, or MCI in the U.S.) that are part of the internet. They can also be national or international companies that have their own networks (such as AT&T’s WorldNet or IBM’s Global Services). OSPs, sometimes just called “online services,” also have their own networks but provide additional information services not available to non-subscribers. America Online is the most successful example of an OSP. (Source:
Access time This is the time lapse between the request for information to the computer and the receipt of information from the computer. It may be determined by the type of link to the net.
Access URL The access URL contains the name of the server that can provide the product, the identification of the product, an identification of the buyer (e.g. the buyer’s IP address), an expiration date for the access URL, and a digital signature for the access URL.
Accessibility An approach to website, mobile and wireless and email design intended to accommodate site usage using different browsers and settings. Accessibility legislation exists to protect online users with special needs, such as visual impairment, against discrimination, and is often contained within disability and discrimination acts. The relevant UK act is the Disability and Discrimination Act (1995). Best practice should also observe WCAG 2.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2, accepted by the International Standards Organization as an ISO International Standard, ISO/IEC 40500:2012 in October 2012.
Accessware A software program for network security based on enabling and enhancing secure access. The purpose of this software is to integrate access control, information privacy, user name, data integrity and information management.
Accesswatch Accesswatch provides a regularly updated summary of WWW server hits and traffic, and gives a graphical representation of these statistics. It generates statistics for hourly server load, page demand, accesses by domain, and accesses by host.
Account When you sign up with an Internet Service Provider (ISP), you’re given an account name or account ID as well as a password. This will allow you to access the internet as well as your email account when you dial the access number provided by the ISP.
Acetate Transparent sheet of film fixed over camera-ready artwork used for positioning repro or for marking instructions.
ACH See Automated Clearing House.
Acknowledgement Acknowledgement of order or enquiry. Can also be an expression of thanks to a person or group for their contribution to a printed work or project.
ACM See Association for Computing Machinery.
Acquisition cost The advertising cost of obtaining a customer or enquiry.
Acrobat Reader A standalone program or web browser plug-in from Adobe that lets you view a .pdf (Printable Document Format) file in its original format and appearance. Websites often give documents such as company reports or brochures as .pdf files – i.e. they have been laid out in Adobe Acrobat and can be a good format for printing out documents with complex graphic design. An advantage of PDF files is that they are “platform independent”. And when you download a .pdf file, you get the entire document in a single file. One slight disadvantage: since .pdf files require an Acrobat Reader to view them (it can be downloaded for free from Adobe’s website), it can be slightly interruptive. Think twice: .pdf files aren’t everybody’s cup of tea, and often it might make more sense to turn the document into WebPages that visitors to your site can read there and then. (Source:
Active Active is an adjective used to describe the objects currently being displayed within your computer screen. For example, on desktop computers the active window is the window you are currently working on.
Active attack An attempt to break security by altering information. An active attack may or may not require decrypting the information attacked. (Source:
Active file A file or list of current customers.
Active server pages (ASP) A type of HTML page. Microsoft’s proprietary server extension (specification) enables web pages to be dynamically created using HTML, scripts and reusable ActiveX server components.
ActiveX Programming language technologies created by Microsoft Corp. enabling a type of interactive content on websites. With ActiveX, websites become animated using multi-media effects, interactive objects, and sophisticated applications.
ActiveX control An applet based on Microsoft technologies that enables interactive content on web pages. (Source:
Activity audit Independent verification of measured activity, such as ad and page impressions, clicks and total visits, for a specific time period. Formerly known as count audit. (Source:
Activity score Each customer is scored according to their responses, e.g. the number of opens, clicks, leads or purchases. See also ‘Activity audit’
Ad Contraction of advertisement.
Ad auction A system to purchase advertising space at the last minute – potentially a cheaper option than booking space further in advance.
Ad banner An advertisement on a web page that links to an advertiser’s website or buffer page. Ad banners are the most common unit of advertising on the web and costs often depend on the amount of page views the website (and thus the ad banner) receives.
Ad blocker Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed. (Source:
Ad campaign audit An activity audit for a specific ad campaign. (Source:
Ad centric measurement Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server’s own server logs. (Source:
Ad click A measurement of the user-initiated action of responding to an ad element causing a redirect to another web location or another frame or page within the advertisement. (Source:
Ad click rate Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions. (Source:
Ad display/ad delivered When an ad is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen. (Source:
Ad download When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. (Source:
Ad hoc research Research that is carried out once only for a specific purpose, e.g. to find out why sales have fallen or to establish what customers’ perceptions of different brands are.
Ad impression Similar in concept to a page impression; describes one viewing of an advertisement by a single member of its audience. The same as ad view, a term that is less commonly used.
Ad inventory The total amount of web advertising space available by size and space. Ad inventory is commonly expressed as ‘impressions per month’.
Ad management service bureau A company that delivers advertisements and reports on their publication. In the case of website advertisements the click rate would also be monitored.
Ad network An agency employed to sell space on a website. Would cover work for a number of different sites.
Ad recall A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents are exposed to an ad and are later asked to recall it. (Source:
Ad rotation When advertisements are changed on a website for different user sessions. This may be in response to ad targeting or simply displaying different advertisements from those on a list.
Ad server A program or a type of server that manages and maintains ad banners for a website or collection of websites. The programs are capable of keeping track and reporting website usage statistics.
Ad serving Delivery of online adverts to an end user’s computer by an ad management system. The system allows different online adverts to be served in order to target different audience groups and can serve adverts across multiple sites. Ad Technology providers each have their own proprietary models for this. (Source:
Ad serving system A system which inserts ads (usually banners) into web pages when the pages are accessed by a user. The web page and the ad may be served (i.e. delivered) by entirely different companies using geographically separated servers.
Ad space The area of a web page that is set aside for banner advertising.
Ad stream The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site. (Source:
Ad tracking The method for recording campaign delivery metrics between ad servers. Third party ad serving tags or 1×1 tracking pixels are commonly used to facilitate the capturing of such data. (Source:
Ad transfer The successful display of an advertiser’s website after the user clicked on an ad and is transferred to the advertiser’s website. (Source:
Ad unit Any defined advertising vehicle that can appear in an ad space inside of an application. For example for the purposes of promoting a commercial brand, product or service. (Source:
Adaptive Digital Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) A form of pulse code modulation (PCM) that produces a digital signal with a lower bit rate than standard PCM. ADPCM produces a lower bit rate by recording only the difference between samples and adjusting the coding scale dynamically to accommodate large and small differences. Some applications use ADPCM to digitize a voice signal so voice and data can be transmitted simultaneously over a digital facility normally used only for one or the other. (Source:
ADC See Analogue-to-Digital Converter, and Automated Data Capture.
Add-a-card A card or piece of stationery fixed to continuous stationery and which can subsequently be removed by tearing perforation or peeling off.
Add-on The sale of a supplement, accessory, replacement part, or a deluxe version of a product.
Addendum An additional piece of information added as a last minute correction.
Address Identification of a unique location or point of delivery. Either a place of abode or computer storage location. Electronic addresses are also known as URLs.
Address locator A type of service available from a number of websites that provides the addresses and phone numbers of individuals and businesses input by the user. (Source:
Adhesive binding Binding style for catalogues and books. Hot-melt adhesive is applied to the roughened or ground back to hold the page and cover together.
ADPCM See Adaptive Digital Pulse Code Modulation.
ADSL See Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
Advance (early) booking discount rate A discount given for advertising booked in advance, either by a specified number of weeks or by a given date in advance. The reduction is generally given as a fixed percentage off rate card.
Advance Postcard Postcard sent in advance of a direct mail or email communication advising that the main mailing is coming.
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) Precursor to the internet, created in 1969 by the US Department of Defence to conduct research into networking. (Source:
Advertainment Hybrid online advertising and entertainment. Contains an advertising message in an entertaining format that encourages consumption. Typically used for video and music promotion and usually contains an interesting interactive element to engage viewers.
Advertisement rate card A table of standard advertisement sizes, costs and production particulars, issued by a publisher to an advertiser who wishes to buy space.
Advertiser Any website that sells a product or service, accepts payments, and fulfils orders. (Source:
Advertiser Funded Programme (AFP) In the context of television broadcasting, a programme funded by an advertiser rather than a broadcaster.
Advertising Promotion of a company, product or service through the use of advertisements.
Advertising network A company that provides sales representation for multiple independent websites by aggregating the ad inventory and selling ads across multiple sites. (Source:
Advertising networks A collection of independent web sites of different companies and media networks, each of which has an arrangement with a single advertising broker to place banner advertisements. (Source:
Advertising schedule A list of planned or booked advertisements showing details of media, sizes, timing and costs.
Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) The association which regulates, monitors and handles public complaints of all advertisements in the UK (except those transmitted by broadcast media).
Advertorial An advertisement that is designed to look like an editorial article. It has to be identified as an advertisement in a publication but is not necessarily on a website.
Adware Software that automatically plays, displays or downloads advertising material to an internet browser.
AFAIK See As Far As I Know.
Affiliate A company promoting a merchant typically through a commission-based arrangement either direct or through an affiliate network.
Affiliate management software In affiliate marketing, tracking and reporting software used to manage affiliate commissions.
Affiliate marketing An affiliate (a web site owner or publisher), displays an advertisement (such as a banner or link) on its site for a merchant (the brand or advertiser). If a consumer visiting the affiliate’s site clicks on this advertisement and goes onto perform a specified action (usually a purchase) on an advertiser’s site then the affiliate receives a commission. (Source:
Affiliate networks or managers Brokers who manage the process of finding affiliates, updating product information, tracking clicks and making payments. Networks may be large, or more tightly targeted, themed around niche interests.
Affiliate programme A relationship between two companies whereby the host pays a percentage or a flat fee for all traffic or purchase requests routed through an affiliate site. (Source: Marketing Week)
Affiliate card A type of credit card, first marketed in 1985, which ties into a special consumer interest.
Affiliate marketing Selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by email promotions, online or offline advertising. (Source:
AFK An acronym for ‘Away From Keyboard’ used in online chat, email, and newsgroup postings.
AFP See Advertiser Funded Programme.
AFT See Automated Fuel Terminal.
After event letter After event follow-up.
Agency fee Remuneration based on a negotiated fee, as opposed to commission.
Agent An agent is a software routine that waits in the background and automatically seeks out online information based on your queries. (Source:
Aggregator An e-commerce business model, offering consumers comparative product, price and service information for a sector; for example, supermarket or financial services price comparison sites. The aggregator’s website sells products/services it doesn’t actually produce or warehouse. Instead, it creates the environment in which clusters of sellers or providers have to compete among themselves.
Agile (software) developments An iterative approach to developing software and website functionality with the emphasis on face-to-face communications to elicit, define and test requirements. Each iteration, or scrum, is effectively a mini-software project including stages of planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, testing and documentation. (Source. Digital marketing: Strategy, implementation and practice, D. Chaffey, 2012)
AHP See Application Hosting Provider.
AI See Artificial Intelligence.
AIDA See Attention, Interest, Desire, Action.
AIDCA As AIDA, but stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, Conviction, Action.
AIFF See Audio Interchange File Format.
Airbrush Small compressed-air gun for achieving fine manual ink spraying on artwork, photographs, etc. Also called aerograph.
Airmail fast Postal service for overseas locations or lightweight paper, usually below 40 gsm, used when postage cost is at a premium. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Airplane Rule “Complexity increases the possibility of failure; a twin-engine airplane has twice as many engine problems as a single-engine airplane”. By analogy, in both software and electronics, the rule that simplicity increases robustness. It is argued that the right way to build reliable systems is to put all your eggs in one basket. (Source:
Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript & XML) Programming technique for developing fast web page interaction. By exchanging data with the server behind the scenes, web pages don’t have to be completely reloaded each time the user interacts or requests a change.
Algorithm A set of rules by which a task or calculation is defined. For example, the set of ‘rules’ a search engine uses to determine the relevance of a web page (and therefore ranking) in its organic search results. See also Natural or Organic search listing and Search Engine Optimization.
Alias On servers, aliases are a way of mapping an incoming request for a web page. When an alias is found in a URL, the alias’s value is substituted in place of the alias.
Aliasing, Anti-Aliasing Unrealistic visual effects on a computer screen are known as aliasing. These peculiarities take many forms; one of the most common would be images with jagged edges or stair-stepped appearances along what is supposed to be a smooth curved surface (like O or S) and/or diagonal lines on the screen. Sometimes called the jaggies. Anti-aliasing is a software technique used in imaging systems (such as Adobe Photoshop) to make these curved edges or diagonal lines look smooth and continuous. (Source:
Align To line up type, horizontally or vertically, using a typographical criterion, e.g. base alignment.
AliWeb A search directory for locating WWW documents that is provided by NEXOR, a UK based service provider. AliWeb does not use a spider, instead, it relies on forms that Web authors themselves submit to the AliWeb database thus making it a directory, not a search engine (similar to Yahoo!). (Source:
Alpha Refers to one of the two ‘pre-release’ phases of a commercial software or hardware product. The release prior to the beta version. (Source:
Alphanumeric Contraction of ‘alphabetic’ and ‘numeric’. Pertaining to a machine character set that contains letters, digits and often other characters such as punctuation marks etc.
Alt Usually seen with a dot after it (i.e., alt.), this is a type of newsgroup that discusses alternative topics. Some Internet Service Providers ask that their users sign an agreement stating they are over 18 before providing access to the alt. newsgroups. (Source:
Alt text The text you see before an image is loaded on a web page; or with some web browsers, the text that appears when you mouse over or hover (your cursor) over on top of an image.
AltaVista Once a popular web search engine owned by Yahoo but Yahoo shut it down in May 2011. As of 2012, the AltaVista website is up again, stating on the website it is now using the Yahoo! search engine. A globally successful ecommerce brand, Amazon launched selling books and diversified to become the world’s largest online retailer. Amazon is often cited as a case study, due to its commercial success and its innovative marketing programs; for example, its patented ordering process, 1-Click, which applies in the US but not in Europe.
Amazoned A traditional retail company is ‘amazoned’ when it suddenly finds part of its business going to a totally online competitor. The term stems from the huge success of online bookshop (Source:
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) An organisation of American industry groups who work with other nations to develop standards in facilitating telecommunications and international trade. Developments include the ASCII, SCSI, and the ANSI.SYS device driver. (Source:
American Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII, pronounced ‘ass-key’) Basic code that assigns a number to each key on the keyboard. ASCII text does not include special formatting features and therefore can be exchanged and read by most computer systems. Each ASCII character is encoded with seven bits. ASCII consists of both control and printable characters.
Analog(ue) The opposite of digital. Analogue representations or media are based on continuous signals of varying frequency and as such suffer from degradation when copied. Digital representations are signals measured at intervals and tend to be higher quality.
Analogue broadcasting Original TV and radio transmission standard where signals were relayed in waveform. This is the way in which TV was distributed for most of the twentieth century.
Analogue TV Wavelength-based broadcasting technology.
Analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) A hardware device that converts information from analogue to digital. (Source:
Analysis The findings of both quantitative or qualitative data put into a form which is both readable and easy to understand.
Anchor text The words that form a text-based hyperlink. The words are viewable within a browser and are important in search engine optimisation. In the web page, an anchor is a labelled location within the page (known as ‘bookmarks’ in the Microsoft world). You can create hyperlinks that take you to any position in the page that has an anchor. (Source: based on
Angels Individuals who invest money into businesses or ‘internet related start-up’ companies. As opposed to a venture capital firm, business angels are usually ‘individual people’ who are ‘independently wealthy.’ (Source:
Animated banner advertisements or animated GIFs Ads which typically involve several different images, displayed in sequence to help to attract attention to the banner and build up a theme, often ending with a call to action and the injunction to click on the banner. These advertisements are achieved through supplying the ad creative as an animated Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) file with different layers or frames, usually a rectangle of 468 by 60 pixels. Animated banner advertisements are an example of rich media advertisements.
Annotations Notes that you can add to web documents. These notes are stored on your local disk and are available each time that you access a document. This feature is found in some web browsers as well. (Source:
Anomaly A weird and unexplainable cause or effect. Also known as bugs. Anomalies are usually what people attribute to hard-to-figure out programming or other computer problems. (Source:
Anonymous The means that allow a person to connect to a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) site, search through available files, and download any file, document, or program without having to establish a userID and/or password on the system where the material resides. (Source:
Anonymous FTP Anonymous File Transfer Protocol. A mechanism for moving files from a user machine to or from a remote internet machine anonymously. In other words you do not have to identify yourself with a user name or password. (Source:
Anonymous posting A message posted to a newsgroup that does not identify the person who sent it. (Source:
ANSI See American National Standards Institute.
AOHell AOHell was the first of what became 1000′s of hacker programs created for use with AOL. Such programs exploit software bugs in the AOL system, allowing hackers to access, among other things, personal email accounts. (Source:
AOL Winsock An add-on to the AOL for Windows application that will allow you to run internet applications which require direct internet connections to work. The AOL Winsock allows you, through your AOL connection, to communicate with other systems using the IP protocol, the background ‘language’ of the internet. The AOL Winsock is customized to work efficiently with America Online and will not work with another Internet Access Provider. (Source:
Apache The software that is used to run many websites on the World Wide Web. (Source:
APC See Advance Postcard.
Aperture Either a lens opening, or an envelope where a window has been cut but there is no glassine covering.
API See Application Program Interface.
APP See Application.
Apple Inc. An American multi-national company founded in 1976. Its best-known hardware products are the Mac line of computers, the iPod music player, the iPhone smartphone, and the iPad tablet computer.
Apple Key A special key on Macintosh computers labelled with the Apple logo. On all but the oldest Apple computers, the Apple key serves as the Command key. (Source:
Applet A small program that runs in a browser and can be embedded in an HTML page. It enables a web page to perform interactive animations, calculations etc. without having to contact the server again, so saving time.
Application A term used to refer to an end-user computer program or group of programs like database, spreadsheet, word processing and web browser programs. (Source:
Application Hosting Provider (AHP) A service for hosting an organisation’s application.
Application Program Interface (API) Interfaces that extend the capabilities of web servers; used by programmers to write applications that can interact with other applications.
Application Server A program or group of programs which collectively integrate into a web server’s environment and interact with the Application Programming Interface (API). By being connected to an API, more flexibility and high-level tasks can be performed remotely or over the internet. This allows a user at a web page to perform more sophisticated server interactions such as querying a database or running other programs loaded on that server’s computer. (Source:
Application Server Solution (ASS) A product that is considered the “answer to someone’s need” with an application server. The word solution is usually tagged onto computer terms when a person wants to imply that the product or software is meeting the needs and addressing the “problems” of the day. (Source:
Application Service Provider (ASP) Provides out-sourced applications (hosted services) accessed via the internet, instead of accessed via installed software. ASP services are scalable, easily and quickly implemented and integrated with other websites.
Archie search engine A tool for indexing File Transfer Protocol (FTP) archives, allowing people to find specific files. It is considered to be the first internet search engine.
Architecture Design of a system and the way components fit together.
ARPANET See Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.
Art (paper) Paper with china clay content, giving a characteristic smooth finish eminently suited to half-tone reproduction and four-colour work. (Source:
Artificial Intelligence (AI) Artificial Intelligence is activity carried out by a machine that, if carried out by a human, would be considered intelligent. We can leave it to philosophers to discuss whether such an activity by a machine would be merely simulating intelligence and note that, from a practical point of view, simulating intelligence is just as good as actual intelligence. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Artwork Material in its final layout, such as type, and illustrations, assembled in preparation for making the printing plate. (Source:
As Far As I Know (AFAIK) Acronym used in online chat, email, and newsgroup postings.
AS/400 and AS/400e The AS/400 is IBM’s successor to the System/36 and System/38. It is a midrange computer with its own operating system, OS/400. The operating system includes its own relational database. Able to run applications written for the System 36 and System 38, the AS/400 had a large number of applications available to users when it was launched. (Source:
ASA See Advertising Standards Authority.
Ascender The part of a lower case character which extends above the x-height. As in ‘b’, ‘d’, ‘If,’. See also Descend.
ASCII See American Standard Code for Information Exchange.
ASP See Application Service Provider, and Active Server Pages.
ASS See Application Server Solution.
Assembly Bringing together several individual items to form a complete product, such as the printing and the collation of the components of a calendar, or the assembly of film etc.
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) The world’s largest educational and scientific computing society, delivers resources that advance computing as a science and a profession. ACM provides the computing field’s premier Digital Library and serves its members and the computing profession with leading-edge publications, conferences, and career resources. (Source:
Association of Mail Order Publishers (AMOP) Trade association set up for publishers active in selling by mail order.
Astra The satellite system specifically designed to broadcast television and radio programmes across the UK and Europe.
Astra panel A selection of cable and satellite homes used to record audience viewing data for Broadcaster’s Audience Research Board (BARB).
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) A transmission technique used to enhance the capacity of ordinary phone lines.
Asynchronous A communications system in which data transmission may start at any time and may pause repeatedly until it is complete. This contrasts with synchronous communications in which data is sent at a regular rate determined by a clocking signal. (Source:
Attachment A file which is transferred together with an email message. For example, you might have a spreadsheet file that you wish to include with your email message to someone. (Source:
Attention factors Research-based factors applied to the Broadcaster’s Audience Research Board (BARB) reported audience to allow for distractions or breaks in viewing. (Source: Computer Active)
Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) Copywriting formula describing the stages by which to engage readers and elicit a response or action.
Attribution modelling A rule, or set of rules, to determine how credit for sales or conversions is assigned to different touchpoints, or media, on customer or enquirer journey. For example, ‘Last interaction’ or ‘Last Click’ attribution assigns 100% credit to the final touchpoint or click immediately preceding a sale or conversion. Advanced attribution modelling can be very complex, involving weighting the contribution of different media across multiple channels to gain insight into how individual and multiple media affected the consumer’s decision.
Attrition rate Percentage of site visitors lost at each stage of the purchase process.
Audience research Research carried out within an audience about an advertised product or service.
Audio file formats See Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF), MP3 and Waveform Audio File Format (WAV).
Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) An audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was developed by Apple Computer in 1988 based on Electronic Arts’ Interchange File Format (IFF, widely used on Amiga systems) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. (Source: In terms of file size and quality, AIFF and WAV formats are fairly interchangeable. See other audio file formats, WAV and MP3.
Audit Verified number of visitors to a website. Currently the Audit Bureau of Circulations provides website audits through ABC/electronic.
Audit trail Information on the significant steps in the progress of a transaction which allows an auditor to determine that there are no errors in the reporting of the transaction.
Authentication The process by which an entity is verified to be what it claims to be. For example, users may have to enter a password to show that they are authorised to have access to certain information. (Source:
Author’s corrections Updates or changes made to a promotional piece by the company being promoted prior to it being a completed by printing or loaded to a website.
Authorisation The process where permission is granted by the card issuer (the financial institution) allowing the payment transaction to proceed. During this process the issuing bank checks that the card’s available credit hasn’t been exceeded. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Automated Clearing House (ACH) Processes routine payments electronically, replacing the less efficient paper cheque system (Source:
Automated crime The use of a software program to invade a system, commit a crime (e.g. illegal transfer of funds) and erase all traces of the crime, usually within a small fraction of a second. (Source:
Automated Fuel Terminal (AFT) A system enabling a purchaser to pay for petrol at the pump normally using a credit card. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Automatic acknowledgement Used as part of an email system. This program sends a response when an email is received, e.g. order receipt acknowledgement.
Automatic data capture (ADC) The collection of data without human intervention, so reducing errors in data capture, e.g. smart cards, bar coding, voice recognition and optical character recognition.
Avatar A picture or cartoon used to represent a person. Typically used to personify a computer or computer process and intended to make the computing or network environment a friendlier place; e.g. as a help function. Used to represent an individual in chat forums, gaming and entertainment.
Average contribution A picture or cartoon used to represent a person. Typically used to personify a computer or computer process and intended to make the computing or network environment a friendlier place; e.g. as a help function. Used to represent an individual in chat forums, gaming and entertainment.
Average customer life The average period of time (or number of buying seasons) during which a customer will continue to purchase.
Average issue readership The total average number of readers for a magazine.
Average order cost The total cost of orders, divided by the total number of orders.
Average order value The total value of orders divided by the total number of orders.
Average order value The total value of orders divided by the total number of orders.
B-ISDN A very high speed data communications service that supports rates of 1.5 million bits per second over fibre optic telephone lines. See ISDN and bits per second in the hard copy dictionary.
B2B See Business-to-Business.
B2C See Business-to-Consumer.
Back end Has two meanings. Can be those fulfilment procedures carried out after the receipt of an order to complete a mail order transaction. Also the completion of a campaign or a job.
Back number Copy of a previous issue of a periodical.
Back test A ‘retest’ or ‘confirming test’ carried out when a sample test was of an acceptable level of success, but not so convincing as to go ahead immediately with full rollout.
Backbone A path through a network (such as the internet) that has a very high capacity. By taking a large part of the network traffic over long distances it helps to speed up the network as a whole.
Backup Marketing: follow on or support activity for main marketing strategy. Printing: act of printing the reverse side of a sheet. Information: a second safe copy of a file or data. Always keep a copy of an important work.
Bad break Undesirable end-of-line hyphenation of a word. (Source: Computer Active)
Bait advertising Advertising that offers unusually low prices for items in order to draw a customer into an online store where the low-priced item is usually not available. Customer is convinced to buy a similar but more expensive product.
Balanced (Business) Scorecard A framework for setting and monitoring business performance popularised in Kaplan and Norton’s HBR article (1993). Metrics are structured according to customer issues, internal efficiency measures, financial measures and innovation.
Baltimore Technologies A leading developer of information security products and services for e-commerce, and one of Ireland’s best-known software companies. Merged with Zergo of the UK. Baltimore made e-commerce history in 1998 when President Clinton and Ireland’s Taoiseach (prime minister) Bertie Ahern digitally signed an inter-governmental communiqué using security technology provided by Baltimore. (Source:
Bandwidth Generally used to describe a network’s information-carrying capacity. It can refer to phone or computer networks, radio frequency signals and even monitors. The more bandwidth, the more users it can support due to the greater rate of data transmission. Bandwidth is usually measured in Kilobytes per second (Kbps); relating to the amount of data that can be carried per second by an internet connection. See also Broadband.
Bangtail A type of envelope generally referring to those formed (often as part of one-piece mailer or self-mailer format) with an attached perforated ‘tail’ used as an order or response coupon.
Banker A style of envelope with triangular shaped flaps suitable for reply envelopes but not for outer envelopes if required for use on mechanical mailing equipment. Also any envelope with a flap on the long side.
Banner A horizontal or vertical graphic, usually fixed, element on a web page used to title the page, head a new section, present a company’s or advertiser’s message or provide a link to another page.
BARB See Broadcaster’s Audience Research Board.
Barcode The small array of parallel rectangular bars used by supermarkets to identify goods at the checkout. The bars have varying widths and spacing: an optical scanner reads the pattern and converts it into a sequence of characters to give a unique code for each item.
Barfmail (Slang) Multiple bounce messages accumulating to the level of serious annoyance, or worse. The sort of thing that happens when an inter-network mail gateway goes down. (Source:
Base artwork Artwork awaiting the addition of other elements, e.g. half-tone positives, before reproduction and colour markup. (Source:
Base line Horizontal line on which characters in a line of type appear to stand.
Base price The price of one unit of a product at the point of its production or its resale.
Basic Input Output System (BIOS) Every PC has a BIOS chip (pronounced ‘bye-oss’). The BIOS controls the basic features of a PC and tells the operating system, things like the time, date and the size of your hard disk.
Basic rates The price for television slots bought according to day and time of transmission. (Source: Computer Active)
Bastard size Non-standard size (of material or format).
Batch Method of computer processing where input data or computer programs are collected together prior to processing.
Batch-header Batch-headers are used in batch control, when document information is standard. The batch-header is a code representing this information, saving repeated keying-in.
Batched job A job grouped with other jobs on input into the computer, as opposed to a single job entry which is handled on its own. (Source:
Baud The baud rate was used as a measure of the speed of a modem. It has been replaced by bits per second. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
BBS See Bulletin Board System.
Behavioural research The study of human behaviour. Actions as opposed to opinions.
Behavioural Retargeting Online ads are displayed elsewhere on a site or other sites in an ad network after a customer has interacted with initial ad related content.
Behavioural targeting Dynamic serving of relevant online content, messaging and display ads that match the inferred interests of a website visitor or email recipient. The inferred relevance is based on data gathered from tracking the user’s previous online behaviour; e.g. dwell time of certain areas of a website, previous websites visited, forms filled out, etc.
Bells and whistles Means ‘all the extras possible’ on a website, such as over-flashy animations and sound files. These are often unneeded or overpriced and distract potential customers.
Below-the-line An out-dated term, opposite to above-the-line. Advertising media that used to be considered more as promotional channels, including direct mail, telemarketing, electronic media, displays, leaflets and brochures and sales promotion and other media. (Source:
Benefit The translation of a product feature into an advantage or use for a customer.
Beta software Software that has been developed to the point where it can be tested for reliability and usability in customer environments but not to the point where it can be broadly sold, used or supported. Beta sites are customer sites where the software is tested.
Bible paper Very thin, strong, opaque printing paper used where low bulk or weight is needed. (Source:
Big data A collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Working with big data requires “massively parallel software running on tens, hundreds, or even thousands of servers”. Big data sizes are a constantly moving target, as of 2012 ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data in a single data set. The target moves due to constant improvement in traditional DBMS technology as well as new databases like NoSQL and their ability to handle larger amounts of data. With this difficulty, new platforms of “big data” tools are being developed to handle various aspects of large quantities of data. (Source:
Bill presentment The delivery of a bill or invoice to a client or customer for payment. Third-party specialists compete with banks to provide electronic bill presentment over the internet, especially for companies that serve large numbers of consumers.
Bill stuffer An additional promotional piece sent out with an invoice or bill. It may or may not be from the same company.
Bill-me-later An invitation to be invoiced at a later date, i.e. after goods have been delivered.
Billing series Number of invoices or statements in a planned programme of mailings, especially for renewals.
Binaries In the context of newsgroups the term binary is used to refer to images/photographs that are attached to an email message. More generally it is a term used in computing to describe files which do not consist of text.
Binder Cover or container to store loose pages. (Source:
Bindery The department of a printer (or separate specialist supplier) that binds and trims printed items.
Binding Method of fixing together pages and covers of a publication to form a finished catalogue. Also an affirmation by an IA or its LRA of the relationship between a named entity and its public key.
Bingo card Otherwise known as reader service card. A reply card bound into a publication, which readers can complete to request literature, samples or general information from those companies that have either advertised or are referred to in the publication.
BIOS See Basic Input Output System.
Bit The basic unit of storage in a computer. It can only hold two values: a 0 or 1. All data stored in computers: numbers, letters and images etc. are made up of bits. Bit is derived from binary digit. (Source:
Bitmap (.bmp) A type of graphic image made up of pixels (or tiny dots). Differs from other image formats in terms of image quality and colours. (Source:
Bits per second (Bps) A measurement of speed of data transfer from one place to another. For example a 56,000 bps 8 modem can process 56,000 bits per second. (Source: Computer Active)
Black and white Single-colour black originals or reproductions. Otherwise known as monochrome. (Source:
Black-hat techniques Unethical techniques to obtain better results, most commonly found in search engine optimization and affiliate marketing. In SEO, black-hat techniques aim to achieve higher search rankings in contravention of search engine rules and regulations. In affiliate marketing, black-hat techniques aim to achieve greater financial reward, typically transgressing the terms and conditions of affiliate network and the merchant.
Blackbird Blackbird was the codename for an online content authoring platform developed by Microsoft in the mid-90s based on the concept of distributed OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) and meant as an alternative to HTML. Work on the platform was cancelled due to performance problems and Microsoft refocused its efforts on web development around ASP and ActiveX, and the designer was refashioned into Visual InterDev. (Source:
Blanket A printing term, the blanket is a covering on a print machine cylinder which is used to transfer the image to the paper.
Blanket-to-blanket A term used to describe the method of perfecting on a printing press which transfers the ink onto both sides of the paper as it passes between two ‘blanket cylinders’ situated in opposition to each other.
Bleed This refers to the printing that extends beyond the edge of the page. The bleed allowance beyond the trimmed size is usually 3mm.
BLHC Bottom Left-Hand Corner.
BLHE Bottom Left-Hand Edge.
Blind ad buy The buying of online ads without a guaranteed placement location (with the benefit of reduced cost being balanced by potentially lower click rates than for a guaranteed placement).
Blind certificate A digital certificate which does not contain the name or other identifying information about the user to whom it is issued. Can be used to verify some limited information about the user or to associate a user with a series of communications.
Blind test A type of market research using unidentified products where consumers indicate their preference and why.
Block Engraved metal, wood etc. From which impressions are printed.
Block perf Perforations impressed by rigid bar or block.
Blocking To impress an image onto a book cover, spine or similar product with use of a block or type. Usually blocking is ‘blind’ and subsequently filled with gold leaf or similar material. It can be hot pressed using an acetate foil.
Blockmaker Supplier who produces blocks for letterpress printing.
Blog Personal online diary, journal or news source, usually regularly updated with news and the views of an individual or group. The author is referred to as a ‘blogger’ and the act described as ‘blogging’.
Blogger See Blogging.
Blogging Publishing a diary or personal log on the web (web-blogging) or mobile device (moblogging).
Blow-in card A loose card with reply device inserted into a publication for advertising purposes.
Blow-up An enlargement (either a photographic or printing term).
Bluecasting A system that allows messages to be automatically pushed to a consumer’s Bluetooth enabled phone. Alternatively, users can pull or request audio, video or text content to be downloaded from a live advert. (Source:
Bluejacking Sending a message from a mobile phone or transmitter to another mobile phone which is in close range via Bluetooth Technology. (Source:
Blueprints The relationships between pages and other content components, which can be used to portray organisation, navigation and labelling systems.
Bluetooth A wireless protocol for voice and data transmission between devices (e.g. PDAs, mobile phones, computers, cash registers and others) through short-range, two-way digital radio.
Bluetooth A standard for short-range radio connectivity between mobile phones, mobile PCs, handheld computers and other peripherals (developed by a consortium including Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba). Replaces the need for cable or infrared connections between such devices and named after Danish king, Harold Bluetooth.
Board General term for paper above an accepted grammage (220 or 225 gsm). Boards may be uncoated or coated one or both sides.
Body (copy) Type matter (text) filling the areas below the headline. The main body of the text.
Body (paper) The combined ‘feel’, texture and weight of paper.
Body matter The text of an advertisement. Also known as the body copy.
Bold Heavier version of a typeface, as distinct from light or medium. Sometimes abbreviated to BF (bold face).
Bond Type of lightweight paper weighing 80gsm or less used for general printing.
Book binding The craft of fixing together the pages and covers of a book.
Book fold A folding process to allow a correctly sequenced book format after stitching and trimming.
Bookmark Netscape Navigator and some other browsers use ‘bookmark’ to refer to a link to a page that you can save because you think you are likely to revisit it. Internet Explorer calls these ‘favourites’.
Boot To load and initialise the operating system on a machine. (Source: Computer Active)
Border A decorative design or rule around the text of a page. (Source:
Bounce message Notification returned to sender by a site unable to relay email to the intended internet address recipient or the next link in a bang path. Reasons might include nonexistent or misspelled username or a down relay site.
Bounce rate The percentage of visitors who stay on the site accessing one page only.
BOWE (ing) Finishing of continuous computer stationery by use of Bowe machinery. Bowe is a proprietary name. (Source:
BPO See Business Process Outsourcing.
BPR See Business Process Re-engineering.
Bps See Bits per second.
Brad ‘British Rates and Data’ a monthly reference guide of advertising and media information. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Brand A name or symbol chosen by a company to uniquely identify a set of products or services that the company has established or hopes to establish in the minds of its customers as an indication of certain levels of quality and trustworthiness.
Brand advocate A customer who has favourable perceptions of a brand who will talk favourably about a brand to their acquaintances to help generate awareness of the brand or influence purchase intent.
Brand equity The brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that add to (or subtract from) a service.
Brand mark A recognisable graphic or wording that identifies a brand, such as a logo.
Brand name The element of a brand that can be vocalised, i.e. words and numbers.
Brand name bidding Sponsored links that appear on search engine results pages when users search for a brand or URL (or obvious misspellings).
BRE See Business Reply Envelope.
Breadcrumbs An indication of position in site structure which also allow users to go up a level within the site and to retrace their steps.
Break-even The level at which financial return equals expenditure.
BRHC Bottom right-hand corner.
BRHE Bottom right-hand edge.
Brick-and-mortar A traditional business operation that commonly deals with its customers face-to-face in an office or store that the business owns or rents (e.g. a retail store or a bank branch).
British Summer Time (BST) In the UK, BST starts on the last Sunday of March and ends on the last Sunday of October. During this period, UK time is set one hour in advance of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Broadband High speed internet connection to the home and office that is always on and delivers a higher bit rate (128kbps or above) than a standard dial-up connection. It allows for a better online experience as pages load quickly and users can download items faster.
Broadband High capacity cable typically allowing data speeds of 512kbps and above.
Broadcaster’s Audience Research Board (BARB) Joint industry committee, funded by television companies, advertising agencies and advertisers, responsible for quantitative research on UK television audiences. BARB awards contracts to independent research companies which maintain panels and collect, process and disseminate the data on behalf of BARB. BARB data is the accepted currency for the planning, buying and selling of television airtime in the UK.
Broadsheets Publications which measure a maximum of 56 cm wide, and a minimum of 36 cm deep. Often used generally to describe large leaflets folded several times to a small finished size.
Broadside An old-fashioned term meaning paper printed on one side only.
Brochure A printed pamphlet which contains fewer pages than a book. (Derived from the French word ‘brocher’ meaning to stitch.)
Brochureware A part of a website that provides an introduction to a company, contact information, and news about its products and services. Also, advertising for planned but nonexistent products.
Broker An individual or company that is an intermediary between a seller and a buyer. A stockbroker specializes in stocks, bonds and other investments. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Bromide A photographic term used to describe a print made on bromide paper.
Browser The software or ‘interface’ through which users view the web. A web browser retrieves, displays and prints web pages and their contents. In June 2012, the world’s most popular browsers were Google’s Chrome, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Mozilla’s Firefox. (Source. )
Browser history A list of all the URLs of the pages you have recently visited. The main browsers allow you to view the history and click on the URL to revisit the page. The browsers also allow you to specify how many dates you want to keep and to delete the history. (Source:
BST See British Summer Time.
Bubble-pack A type of packaging made of plastic bubbles to protect a product. (Source:
Buck slip A dollar-bill-sized enclosure. It is generally used to announce a premium or discounted offer for early reply (US).
Buffering When a streaming media player saves portions of file until there is enough information for the file to begin playing.
Bug An unwanted and unintended property of a program or piece of hardware, especially one that causes it to malfunction.
Bulk Paper term used to describe the degree of thickness of a paper. (Source:
Bulk stock Stock held in main warehousing location and usually despatched to secondary area for utilisation.
Bulk up Term used when the body of a paper simulates that of a higher weight.
Bullet point Typesetting term for a large dot used for emphasis. Also bull point e.g. ‘.’
Bulletin board system (BBS) Software that enables users to log into email, use internet and chat groups via modem. (Source:
Bursting Act of separating continuous stationery. (Source:
Business process outsourcing (BPO) The general practice of using external services providers. Usually driven by the need for dedicated expertise or to reduce costs/overheads of services and functions.
Business process reengineering (BPR) The strategic analysis of business processes and the planning and implementation of improved business processes. The analysis is often customercentred and holistic in approach.
Business reply licence Licence issued by the Post Office to use business reply facilities (see also BRE). (Source:
Business-Reply Envelope (BRE) A pre-addressed envelope to be returned to the mailer. The mailer pays postage only on envelopes returned.
Business-to-Business (B2B) Direct communication, from an organisation to another organisation.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Communication from a business to consumers.
Button A small advertisement usually found embedded within a website page. Buttons can provide a constant presence on a website while costing considerably less than a banner. Buttons can build brand awareness and attract traffic to the sponsor’s website but their message must be limited and simple.
Buy-side ecommerce Transactions that procure resources needed by an organisation from its suppliers.
Byte The standard unit of measure for computer storage. It is the unit that holds a single character such as the letter ‘A’ or the dollar sign ‘$’.
C-commerce (Collaborative commerce) The collaborative, electronically enabled business interactions among an enterprise’s internal personnel, business partners and customers throughout a trading community. The trading community could be an industry, industry segment or supply chain.
C2B See Consumer-to-Business.
C2C See Consumer-to-Consumer.
C4, C5, C6, C7 (‘C’ series) Envelopes with dimensions specifically to contain flat sheets of equivalent ‘A’ size paper, e.g. C4 envelope holds flat A4 sheet. N.B. Envelope is larger than sheet. (Source:
Cabbage letter A letter with illustration/s; a hybrid letter/leaflet.
Cable One of the ways of opening up broadband access to interactive services. The key competitor is digital satellite.
Cable operator Company that lays cable, and owns and operates the cable system. Companies that own more than one system are called Multiple Systems Operators (MSOs), e.g. Telewest and NTL.
Cable penetration Either the proportion of cable subscribers to all TV homes in the area, expressed as a percentage; or more commonly in the UK, the proportion of cable subscribers to homes with access to a cable service.
Cable TV Television programming from a central receiver (sometimes called the ‘Head End’) through a fibre optic or coaxial cable network into the consumer’s home.
Cache memory An area of your computer memory or directory on your hard disk. This is the place your browser stores web pages you have already viewed, for you to return to at a later stage. When users re-visit those pages they load more quickly because they come from the cache and don’t need to be re-downloaded from the internet.
Cache date This is the date when the search robot last visited a page. It is usually indicated within the search engine results page or by entering the cache: syntax within Google.
Cache pages Google robots take a snapshot of each page visited as they crawl the web. They store these and they are used as a backup if the original page is unavailable. You can view the cached page if you click on the “cached” link in the SERPs. Words contained within the search phrase the searcher enters are highlighted.
Caching The process of copying a web element (page or ad) for later reuse. (Source:
CAD See Computer Aided Design.
Call back A simple device whereby customers can click on a website or in an email to request that your call centre contacts them, often enabling the customer to specify a convenient time for the call.
Call detail reporting (CDR) The logging and reporting of details about each connection by users to a LAN through a network access server .Also, the logging and reporting by a PBX of voice or data calls made from the PBX to the Public Switched Telephone Network or vice versa.
Call to Action A statement or instruction to carry out an action following an explanation or piece of promotional material.
Calligraphy The art of specialist handwriting.
Camera ready Type and line artwork pasted up into position ready for repro stage. Camera ready copy (CRC).
Campaign A term given to advertising, promotions or sales. It describes a co-ordinated series of efforts built around a theme and designed to reach an identified goal, usually identified by a time-period.
Campaign URLs or CURLs A web address specific to a particular campaign.
Campaign-based ecommunications E-marketing communications that are executed to support a specific marketing campaign such as a product launch, price promotion or a website launch.
Campaigning charity A charity which sees its major role as to lobby and canvass on a particular subject.
Cancel To remove a leaf in a book and replace it with another. Also, sheets used to replace cancelled leaves.
Cancellation notice Notice given by a mail order buyer to a mail order company to cancel an order for merchandise.
Canvass An expression used in some circles to denote a sales campaign or collection of opinions.
Capabilities The processes, structures and skills adopted for planning and implementing digital marketing.
CAPI See Cryptography API.
Caps Short for capital or upper case letters. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Caps and smalls Type consisting of capitals for initials and smaller capitals in place of lower case letters.
Caption Written material (copy) to describe a picture or illustration.
Capture The procedure for a previously authorised transaction once the merchant has shipped goods or services to the customer. The transaction triggers the movement of funds from the issuer to the acquirer and then to the merchant’s account.
Card code A combination of punched holes that represent a certain key code. (Source:
Card rates The costs for buying advertisement space as set out on the advertisement rate card.
Card Reader in the Dispenser (CRIND) See Automated Fuel Terminal (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Card sorting General term for a technique (applicable to research or design, for example) for exploring how people group items, so that you can develop structures that categorise – or maximise the probability of users being able to find – items.
Card-deck A series of promotional cards sent out as a pack to promote a range of products that have relevance to a particular target market.
Carriage Another word for delivery, e.g. carriage costs.
Cartridge A tough, matt-surfaced paper used in drawing books, display and book printing etc. Originally used for gun cartridges. Usually weighs more than 80gsm. Has good dimensional stability, high opacity and good bulk.
Cascading style sheets A feature of HTML that gives both the website developers and users more control over how the pages are displayed. With CSS, designers and users can create style sheets that define how different elements, such as headers and links appear.
Case history Documentation of a particular marketing activity or series of activities generally for a single company or partners in a promotion. It is often used as a guide for future activity or as an example for others to follow.
Cash buyer A mail-order buyer who encloses a cheque or postal order with his order. Also used for credit card purchasers.
Cash discount A deduction from the listed price often for payment within a given time period.
Cash upfront Where a product or service is charged for in advance (also known as pro forma).
Cash-With-Order (CWO) As cash buyer.
Cast coated A paper or board which has been coated and polished to a hard glossy finish to give the impression of varnishing or laminating.
Catalogue A printed book or pamphlet which lists and describes merchandise for sale.
Catalogue buyer A person who has bought one or more products from a catalogue.
Catalogue request Has two meanings. Those who have asked for a catalogue. The request of a catalogue.
CATI See Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing.
Causal research Causal research looks at cause-and-effect relationships in order to explain why things happen. This research uses qualitative and quantitative techniques and all forms of observation. It is usually undertaken on an ad hoc basis.
CBT See Computer Based Training.
CD-ROM Similar to a CD disc but containing electronic information. ROM – Read only memorymeaning that the information cannot be changed but is for reader access only. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
CDA See Communications Decency Act.
CDR See Call Detail Reporting.
Cello Cello was an early shareware 16-bit multipurpose web browser for Windows 3.1. Although a version 2.0 had been announced, development was abandoned prior to a public release leaving version 1.01a, released on 16 April 1994. The browser is no longer available from its original homepage. However, it can still be downloaded from mirror sites. (Source:
Census The enumeration of all people or groups involved in survey.
Census tract An American term for a small geographical area, approximately 1200 households, containing a population with relatively similar economic and social characteristics.
Centre To position type centrally in a given space, usually horizontally.
Centre spread As centrefolds.
Centred Type which lies central across the width of a page or column. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Centrefold The centre opening of a section (two pages) with consecutive page numbers.
CEPS See Common Electronic Purse Specification.
Certificate (digital) A document designed to address security issues such as authentication and nonrepudiation when executing e-commerce transactions, containing information about the issuer, the owners, a public key, the period for which the certificate is valid and the host to whom it was issued.
Certificate Authority The CA or ‘Trusted Third Party’ is an entity (typically a company) that issues digital certificates to other entities (organisations or individuals) to allow them to prove their identity to others.
Certification path The hierarchy of certificate authorities that vouch for a digital certificate issued to a user. The path runs from the issuing certificate authority to the root certificate authority. (Source:
Certified delivery server A server which uses public key cryptography to provide a destination nonrepudiation service, similar to certified mail. The server establishes that a message was received or that a good faith effort was made to deliver it. (Source:
CGI See Common Gateway Interface.
Chalking The disfiguration of a printed image by rubbing under slight pressure caused by over-rapid absorption of ink solvent – leaving the pigment of ink on the paper surface. Most frequently encountered on papers with china clay content.
Challenge-response An authentication technique for smart cards. The customer is prompted (or challenged) to provide some private information (the response). The inbuilt security system presents a code (the challenge) to the user, which he or she enters into the smart card.
Channel The route by which a manufacturer/producer or retailer distributes products and services to its customers.
Channel behaviour Describes which content is visited and the time and duration.
Channel conflict Channel conflict can occur when a company promotes or sells similar products through different channels to the same target market, such as books from a shop or from a website. It can cause problems of pricing and issues with the middleman.
Channel definition format A specification developed by Microsoft and PointCast that defines when and how web browser users receive information broadcast over the internet using server push technology. (Source:
Channel marketing strategy A strategy that defines the specific objectives and methods an organisation sets for using a channel and how its proposition and communications for that channel will vary to suit the particular characteristics of the channel.
Channel of distribution Methods of distribution of goods or services from a manufacturer to a consumer. E.g. Retail outlets, mail order. It may or may not have a middle man (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Channel reach (TV) The number or percentage of a potential audience who watch a channel at all over a particular period of time (typically one day, week or month).
Channel share (TV) The percentage of the viewing audience watching one channel as opposed to any other channels, over a given period of time.
Character A letter, figure or other type symbol.
Character count The total number of both spaces and type in piece of copy.
Charge card buyer A buyer who gives a charge card number, from which a seller receives payment.
Chat (forum/rooms) A group of internet users exchanging messages on a subject of common interest. Unlike newsgroups all the participants are connected to the forum at the same time and the messages are displayed immediately for members of the forum to see.
Chat bot Short for ‘chat robot’ and also known as ‘chatterbot’, this is a computer program that simulates human conversation, or chat, through artificial intelligence.
Check box A small square box which, when clicked on, displays a cross or tick to show that an option has been selected. (Source: Computer Active)
Check digit A code digit, often applied to a series of numbers to act as a check for accuracy of the number.
Check Image Interchange The transmission of digitised images of checks between banks as part of the check clearing process. Since each check image requires approximately 40,000 bytes, images are not expected to replace paper checks soon. The first likely use will be as part of notification from one bank to another when the bank on which a large-dollar check is drawn decides not to honour the check and desires to provide the image of the check to the bank which originally accepted the check so that fraud or other problems can be rapidly investigated. Currently such notification is done by phone or Fed Wire. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Checking copy Similar to a voucher copy, the checking copy is a publication sample sent to an advertiser to verify the appearance of an advertisement.
Checkstand A web application (software program) that manages pricing for items in a shopping cart, adds delivery and taxes, and arranges for customer payment. To the customer, this the place in the online store where they check out and pay for their order.
Cheshire One make of labelling machine. It cuts continuous stationery to label size and fixes it to material.
Cheshire label A label produced by a Cheshire machine. Cheshire labels are printed in a continuous form in a special format (generally 4 labels across and 11 down).
Chlorine-free Paper that has been made without the use of chlorine in the production process.
Choking Reproduction term for the way ink is controlled on overlapping areas of colour.
Chroma copy A colour print made without a negative.
Chrome Showy features added to attract users but contributing little or nothing to the power of a system. ‘The 3D icons in Motif are just chrome, but they certainly are pretty chrome!’
Chug To run slowly; to grind or grovel. ‘The disk id’s chugging like crazy’. (Source:
Churn The rate at which a customer leaves a service or site. Churn rate is usually expressed as a number or percentage of defecting customers or subscribers, disconnecting enquirers, etc. This is a major concern for most businesses and online businesses who try to provide a ‘sticky’ service with regular interest to keep users revisiting or repurchasing.
CICS See Customer Information Control System.
CIP See Commerce Interchange Pipeline.
Circulars Notice or advertisement in any form to be distributed by post. An out-of-date description frowned upon by the direct marketing fraternity. (Source:
Circulation Has two meanings. The distribution of a publication. The number of copies sold per issue of a publication.
Clasp envelope A type of envelope which is sealed by means of a metal clip.
Classified (ad) A form of advertising which is particularly common in newspapers, online and other periodicals which may be sold or distributed free of charge. Classified advertising is called such because it is generally grouped under headings classifying the product or service being offered (headings such as Accounting, Automobiles, Clothing etc.) and is grouped entirely in a distinct section, which makes it distinct from display advertising. Display advertising typically contains graphics or other art work and which is more typically distributed throughout a publication adjacent to editorial content. (Source:
Clean proof A printer’s proof in which there are no errors or amendments.
Click On the web, the act of selecting and following a link by placing one’s mouse cursor on the text, graphics, banner, or button identifying the link and depressing a button on the mouse. See clickthrough rate. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Business Manual)
Click to Call A service that enables a mobile user to initiate a voice call to a specified phone number by clicking on a link on a mobile internet site. Typically used to enhance and provide a direct response mechanism in an advertisement.
Click to Play or CTP video ads These video ads have an initial static image file which is displayed encouraging users to click to view the full video. The proportion of viewers who click is known as the Play Rate.
Click tracking Java technology can be used to track movements of individual users to a website.
Click tracking URL Also known as click through URL or click command. This is used to record the number clicks delivered on an advertising banner. Commonly used when third party adserving is not compatible and run alongside the 1×1 tracking pixel. (Source:
Click-wrap agreements Jargon used where an agreement is made by clicking onto a point and accepting a service or product. Terms and conditions for the agreement should be clearly stated within the website to be valid.
Clickstream The clickstream shows the number and which websites a user has visited in a session or even more than one session. Additional information on the user can also be collected through the use of cookies.
Clickthrough When a user interacts with an online ad by clicking on it, going through to the advertiser’s site
Clickthrough rate Frequency of clickthroughs as a percentage of impressions served. Used as a measure of advertising effectiveness. Overall clickthrough rates have declined substantially since the early days of the web.
Client A client machine is a computer that operates by obtaining information or service from another machine – a Server. For example your machine with a Web browser on is a client machine. To obtain Web pages the browser goes to a Web server machine. The software that supports the operation of the client is known as client software. (Source:
Client/server Client/server computing divides the processing between two (or more) processors: The client makes requests that are carried out by the server. In a transactionprocessing application the user would enter transaction details on the client computer and when all the details have been entered a message is sent to the server computer to register the transaction on a central database. Often the central database is far too large to reside on the client computer (typically a PC). Offloading some of the processing to the client computer (generating screen displays and initial validation of data) improves efficiency. (Source:
Close up Instruction on proof or text to reduce spacing between characters of type or other elements. (Source:
Closed loop reporting The ability to measure the effectiveness of a particular ad on the web by tracking which ad viewers actually bought which product, requested a catalogue, or took other specific actions on the website.
Closing out The final results of a mailing or ad campaign.
CLTV See Customer Lifetime Value.
Cluster Group of people or items with an affinity.
Cluster analysis A mathematical technique for grouping data into clusters with similar characteristics.
Cluster selection A selection routine based on taking a regular sample of a group of names in a series, e.g. the first ten names of every 100 on a list.
Cluster theory The marketing theory which states that customers sharing demographic or other characteristics are likely also to share buying preferences.
CMW+ The first commercial implementation, by Security First Network Bank, of the trusted operating system.
Co-branding An arrangement between two or more companies where they agree to jointly display content and perform joint promotion using brand logos or banner advertisements. This can occur without payment. (Source:
Coarse screen A print term used to describe a newsprint type appearance. This is made up of a half-tone screen with up to 85 lines per inch.
Coated paper Paper covered in substance, e.g. china clay, to give it a smooth surface for half-tone reproduction.
COBRA See Common Object Request Broker Architecture.
COCA See Cost Of Cracking Adjustment.
Code 1. A cipher. A mathematical function for encryption and decryption (which can be seen in the hard copy dictionary). 2. A software program or part of a software program. (Source:
Coding An identification reference added to material. It can be numeric or alpha or a combination of both. (Source:
Cold Fusion A Rapid Application Development system that integrates browser, server and database technologies into web applications. The system was created by the Allaire Corporation of Cambridge, Mass and is now owned by Adobe. “Adobe® ColdFusion® application server enables developers to rapidly build, deploy, and maintain Java™– EE applications for the enterprise.” (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006 and Adobe)
Collaborative filtering Profiling of customer interests coupled with delivery of specific information and offers, often based on the interests of groups of similar customers.
Collate To bring together pages etc. in a specified sequence, e.g. for binding. (Source: Marketing Week)
Colour bars Colour strips on four-colour proofs showing densities across a sheet.
Colour correction Changing colour values in a set of separations at repro stage.
Colour proof Full-colour copy of page for final checking before printing stage.
Colour separation Separating full colour into the four process colours, resulting in four films used to make printing plates.
Colour swatch A sample of a specified colour.
Colour transparency A full-colour photographic positive on film. Abbreviated to trans or tranny.
Colourguide/colour markup Instructions on artwork indicating colour requirements.
COM See Component Object Model.
Comb binding A method of binding loose sheets by punching slots and inserting a preformed plastic ‘comb’.
Commented code The programming code (source file) for a website.
Commented Interchange Pipeline (CIP) A component of Microsoft Commerce Server that provides a software infrastructure for executing an array of components in a specified order.
Commercial The fabled next stage of a company’s Web development. As in “we’re going to move towards a commercial Web presence in phase two”. (Source:
Commercial minutage The number of minutes on television during which commercials (as opposed to programmes, trailers etc.) are broadcast.
Commercial-Off-The-Shelf products or services (COTS products or services)This term is usually used in relation to technology products or services (for example, database solutions). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Commoditisation Generic term for an increase in the supply and similarity of a product or service, or category of products or services, which tends to drive down the price of those products/services.
Common customer profile A corporate-wide definition of all the database fields that are relevant to the marketing team in order to understand and target customers with relevant offerings.
Common Electronic Purse Specification (CEPS) A unique standard for the global interoperability of smart cards, first developed by Visa before being handed over to the European Committee for Banking Standards.
Common Gateway Interface (CGI) CGI scripts are an important mechanism for making websites interact with databases and other programs. A CGI (or Common Gateway Interface) script is a small program written in a script language such as Perl. The script acts as the “glue” between a HTML page and other programs on your Web server. For example, when you type a request in a search page, the CGI script sends your search data to a database management system. Then the CGI script formats the results of that search as a new HTML page, which is sent back to your browser. (Source:
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) This specification from the Object Management Group provides the standard interface definition between OMG-compliant objects. (Source:
Communications Decency Act (CDA) This Act made it a federal crime in the USA to send a communication which is “obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, or indecent, with intent to annoy, abuse, threaten, or harass another person”. It also threatened with imprisonment anyone who “knowingly” makes accessible to minors any message that “describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards. (Source:
Community In the context of the internet and electronic commerce, people who participate in a online discussion group or bulletin board, or who return frequently to a Web site because of a common interest in a given subject. One business strategy developing on the internet is to create a community and then sell access to the group for marketing purposes. (Source: Marketing Week)
Competence (plural Competences) A defined expectation of performance in terms of outputs; a defined standard of attainment. “I have the competence to do this task.” Typically, competence is the minimum requirement to perform a job satisfactorily.
Competency (plural Competencies) A behaviour-based descriptor of performance; an ability that achieves successful performance. It is what you bring to the task. “My competency will help in this task.” In modern usage (especially internationally), competencies describe the KSAs (knowledge, skills, abilities) that distinguish superior performers from average performers.
Component Components save a programmer from having to re-write code. A component can be large or small and can perform any kind of processing, but it must be re-usable and it must conform to set standards to allow interoperability between different components. Several standards exist to define component frameworks, including Microsoft’s COM (Component Object Model) and DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model), and the multi-vendor CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). (Source:
Component Object Model (COM) An open software architecture from DEC and Microsoft, allowing interoperation between ObjectBroker and OLE. Microsoft evolved COM into DCOM. (Source:
Compression Technologies used to reduce the size of computer files travelling the networks and hence to increase the speed. Popular formats include ZIP, JPEG, GIF, MPEG and MP3 (Source:
Compumailer A machine which turns continuous stationery into a personalised letter and envelope, encloses one inside the other and seals ready for mailing. (Source:
Computationally secure A cipher is computationally secure if systematic analysis with available computing resources cannot break the cipher in a short enough time to allow exploitation. (See cipher in the hard copy dictionary.)
Computer Aided Design (CAD) The use of computers to assist the design process. Specialised CAD programs exist for various types of design: architectural, engineering, electronics, roadways, and woven fabrics to name a few. (Source:
Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing (CATI) Responses are keyed directly into a computer and administration of the interview is managed by a specifically designed program that uses prompts and filters to maintain the quality of how responses are elicited and recorded.
Computer Based Training (CBT) Education in which the student learns on a computer. CBT is especially effective for training people to use computer applications because the CBT program can be integrated with the applications so that students can practice using the application as they learn. (Source:
Concertina fold Folding which alternates between one way and the opposite way as with a concertina.
Conclusive research Aims to produce definitive ‘hard’ information for use in decision making by management; often associated with ‘go/no go’ decisions. Also used to verify a hypothesis before large-scale data collection commences.
Condensed type A narrow typeface; i.e. its width is less than its height.
Consent Any freely given specific and informed indication of a person’s wishes by which the data subject signifies his/her agreement to personal data relating to him/her being processed.
Consolidated TV viewing Live viewing plus video playback of programmes recorded and watched within seven days of transmission.
Consumer Internet Privacy Protection Act (1997) A law that regulates how interactive computer services can use personal information input by users. For the purposes of this bill, interactive computer services are essentially Internet Service Providers. See also data protection.
Consumer-to-business (C2B) Consumers approach the business with an offer.
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) Informational or financial transactions are between consumers, but usually mediated through a business site.
Contact card A smart card containing a microchip identified by a reader to give access as required.
Contact print A photographic print made in contact with and therefore the same size as the negative. (Source:
Contact strategy A structured plan for the number, frequency and type of online and offline communications and offers to maximise customer acquisition and retention.
Contactless Card A smart card which hides the microchip within the plastic and communicates through radio waves. Toll collection, where drivers hold their cards up to a reader as they pass, is the most common application. Contactless cards have been developed by AT&T Smart Cards and GemPlus Card International. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Content Centric Software As distinguished from older processing-centric software in which content (data) is fed to the program, content centric software is embedded in or wrapped around content. It is oriented to dynamic documents and is generally designed to run over networks, including the World Wide Web. (Source: Marketing Week)
Content integration Advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. Also known as ‘web advertorial’. (Source:
Content management system (CMS) Software tools or web services, enabling users to create, edit and update documents accessed by intranet, extranet, or internet, within an existing template. Typically, CMS are browser-based web applications running on a server.
Content marketing The management of content, including text, rich media, audio, video and offline content, with the objective to engage customers and prospects and meet other business goals.
Content network An online network that facilitates ad display on third-party sites. For example, the Google AdSense network is used by publishers to incorporate Google AdWords on their sites. Ads are paid for on a PPC basis or on a CPM basis.
Content partner site In the context of digital television, a retail outlet hosted in the interactive area of the broadcaster’s TV site. This is an annual tenancy arrangement and can be transactional.
Content sponsorship Advertiser sponsorships of content areas (e.g. entire website, homepage or a specific channel) to include the total value of the package including any embedded or interruptive formats. This category also includes revenue related to email advertising or prioritised listing of results in search engines that are included as part of the sponsorship deal.(Source:
Contextual or content matched pay-per-click advertising Pay per click ads are placed on third-party sites according to a match between the keyword for the ads and text content on the page being viewed by a user at that specific time.
Continuity series A type of series marketing where consumers are offered similar products over a period of time.
Continuous ecommunications Long-term or ongoing use of digital marketing communications for customer acquisition and retention.
Continuous research Gathers information routinely in order to assess trends over time. It is almost always quantitative. Results are usually reported in regular bulletins to managers.
Continuous stationery Paper produced in a reel or fan fold presentation with sprocket guide holes for use on a computer printer.
Continuous tone An image in which the tonal gradation is produced by changes in density.
Contra deals A reciprocal agreement in the form of an exchange where payment doesn’t take place instead services or ad space to promote another company as part of cobranding occurs.
Contribution Contribution to advertising costs, to overheads or profit, i.e. the amount of revenue available to be allocated to these items of expenditure.
Control A control is normally the standard promotional presentation of a product against which tests are evaluated to see if any improvement is made.
Control Panel This is where many of Windows’ settings can be viewed; here you will find icons for most functions including printers, modems, and sound.
Controlled vocabulary Defined list of (key) words and phrases typically describing content and categories of items in a website. Often displayed as a tag cloud (which see) to facilitate user searches and search indexing.
Convergence A trend in which different hardware devices such as televisions, computers and telephones merge and have similar functions. For example, TV sets and smartphones allow people to access to digital TV, interactive web services, hi-fi audio and other services.
Conversion A marketing term for when your prospects or website visitors complete a desired marketing action; for example, clickthrough, purchase, enquire, request more information, etc. Conversion rate is usually expressed in terms of percentage conversion. In the context of TV, conversion refers to the relative efficiency of a channel, programme or campaign in reaching a sub-audience compared to a broad audience, normally expressed as an index.
Conversion Optimizer Google A Google tool which analyses the search query, location of user and conversion history of sites on the content network into account to minimise CPA for sites which have conversion tracking in place. It is intended to reduce over-bidding for search queries that are less likely to convert, or under-bidding for search queries which are more likely to convert.
Conversion pack The material sent out to an enquirer in the expectation of converting the enquiry to a sale. (Source:
Conveyor Normally a mechanical driven feed or delivery system working on belts or oscillating devices.
Cookie A small bit of software placed on a user’s PC by a web server that identifies the user’s browser so they are ‘recognised’ when they return to that site. The browser stores the software in a text file called cookie.txt. It sends a message back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. The main purpose of cookies is to identify returning users and to store browser session data.
Cookie buster Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser. (Source:
Cookie expiry period The time stated in an affiliate marketing programme between when a visitor clicks the affiliate link and the sale is credited to the affiliate. Common times are 7, 30 or 90 days. A longer cookie period will result in a higher Average earnings per hundred clicks (EPC). (Source:
Copy Printing term for text.
Copyproof Trade-name of photographic paper widely used throughout print trade to produce ‘bromides’.
Core The driving power of a computer expressed in ‘K’ or Megabytes.
Corporate information portal A corporate information resource accessed via an intranet using structured and nonstructured approaches. A corporate or enterprise portal will consolidate many existing separate intranets into a single access point.
Cost Of Cracking Adjustment (COCA) An adjustment in the strength of an encryption method over time to reflect that newer and faster computers are able to crack codes more rapidly. The adjustment is generally expressed as the bits that should be added to a key each year to maintain the cost of cracking the code at a constant level. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Cost Per Acquisition (CPA) How much you can afford to spend to acquire a customer or achieve another desired marketing action, such as a lead or signup. For example, in Google Adwords, CPA establishes the amount that you’re willing to pay for a conversion. Cost per acquisition is often used interchangeably with Cost per action
Cost Per Action (CPA) What someone is prepared to pay for a desired action. Cost per Action is often used interchangeably with Cost per Acquisition.
Cost Per Click (CPC) The amount paid by an advertiser for a click on their sponsored search listing. See also PPC. (Source:
Cost Per Customer (CPC) The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer. (Source:
Cost Per Enquiry (CPE) The cost per enquiry is calculated by dividing the total cost of a mailing by the number of enquiries identified as from that mailing.
Cost Per Lead (CPL) Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received. (Source:
Cost Per Mille (CPM) The same as Cost Per Thousand (CPT).
Cost Per Order (CPO) Total cost of a mailing divided by the number of resultant orders received.
Cost Per Sale (CPS) The advertiser’s cost to generate one sales transaction. (Source:
Cost Per Thousand (CPT) The same as Cost Per Mille (CPM). Media term describing the cost of showing the ad to 1,000 people. It is used in marketing as a benchmark to calculate the relative cost of an advertising campaign or an ad message in a given medium. Rather than an absolute cost, CPM estimates the cost per 1,000 views of the ad. For example: in TV terms, CPT refers to reaching 1,000 viewers with, say, a 30-second (or equivalent) advertisement; in digital marketing, CPM refers to 1,000 ad or page impressions served.
COTS products See Commercial-Off-The-Shelf products or services.
Coverage The proportion of a target audience seeing an advertising or other marketing campaign.
CPA See Cost Per Acquisition.
CPC See Cost Per Click, and Cost Per Customer.
CPE See Cost Per Enquiry.
CPL See Cost Per Lead.
CPM (Cost Per Mille) See Cost Per Thousand.
CPO See Cost Per Order.
CPS See Cost Per Sale.
CPT See Cost Per Thousand.
Crack, cracking The act of breaking into a computer system; what a cracker does. Contrary to widespread myth, this does not usually involve some mysterious leap of hackery brilliance, but rather persistence and the dogged repetition of a handful of fairly well-known tricks that exploit common weaknesses in the security of target systems. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Crawler A piece of software used to identify and access websites across the world wide web.
Crease To impress paper or card with a blind rule to enable easy folding. (Source:
Credit Transfer A transfer of funds in which the payer issues a payment order to the payer’s own bank and the order is passed, possibly through intermediary banks, to the bank of the payee or beneficiary. (See debit transfer.)
CRIND Card Reader in the Dispenser. See Automated Fuel Terminal.
CRM See Customer Relationship Management.
Cromalin A mechanically generated proof generally produced in small numbers. without using a proofing machine or making plates. It shows the colour of a printed item by building up the final colour using electrostatic techniques. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Crop Cut part of a transparency or illustration to give better effect or to give a better fit.
Cross folds Folds which are at right angles to the direction of the feed of paper through the machine.
Cross-Media Optimisation Studies (XMOS) Studies to determine the optimum spend across different media to produce the best results. XMOS shows that, typically, it is worthwhile to put double digit percentages into online media.
Cryptography API (CAPI) An application program interface (which see in the hard copy dictionary) that makes it easy for applications to use cryptography software developed by others. It facilitates application development, supports updating of the application code and the cryptography code independent of one another, and allows the use of different cryptography code for domestic sales (in the USA) and for export. (See export laws.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Cryptoki A standard application program interface that presents applications with a simple object view of a device called a cryptographic token. The logical token definition is independent of the underlying cryptographic technology. The Cryptoki Standard (also known as PKCS #11) was developed by RSA Data Security. (Source:
CTA See Call to Action.
CTI Computer Telephony Integration. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Cursor A marker that appear on the screen to show where the next character will be. This is the vertical flashing bar that appears on text entry. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Customer centric marketing An approach to marketing based on detailed knowledge of customer behaviour within the target audience, which then seeks to fulfil the individual needs and wants of customers.
Customer centric web design Design based on an understanding of customer needs, characteristics and behaviours; optimising the user experience according to all influential factors, including the user interface and environment.
Customer experience management The evaluation, design and delivery of the entire online customer experience for transactional ecommerce sites from understanding customer motivations, customer journeys between websites as part of a buying process, the website experience and service quality as indicated by inbound enquiries and fulfilment of products. (Source:
Customer file A file or list of customers, sometimes loosely used for members of Associations. (Source: Computer Active)
Customer Information Control System (CICS) A database handling system for mainframes.
Customer insight Deeply embedded knowledge about customers that helps to structure decision making. Creates an accessible, joined-up picture of the customer for everyone involved with the customer relationship.
Customer journey A series of touchpoints experienced by the customer across various media and channels over time – either a specified period of time or throughout the customer’s lifetime relationship with the brand or organisation.
Customer knowledge The combination of data and information to which is added expert opinion, skills and experience to result in a valuable asset which can be used to make decisions. It is the essential factor in adding meaning to information. Knowledge may be explicit or tacit, individual or collective.
Customer lifetime value (CLTV, LTV) The total value of all future contributions to profit and overhead you can expect from that customer.
Customer profiling A descriptive process that builds a picture of each customer or prospect, by analysing website and/or database data. Characteristics are analysed to create targetable and ranked (in order of actual and potential value) segments and clusters.
Customer relationship management (CRM) The discipline of organising business resources to enhance and personalise each customer encounter as part of a long-term strategy of profitable retention. (Source: Angus Jenkinson)
Customer relationship management system A system used to automate the process of marketing and delivering services to customers, typically to encourage purchase/purchaser loyalty.
Customer scenarios Alternative tasks or outcomes required by a visitor to a website. Typically accomplished in a series of stages of different tasks involving different information needs or experiences.
Customer segmentation Customers are grouped according to their needs and value and different offerings delivered to each.
Customer touchpoints Also known as ‘contact points’. Moments when and places where customers experience your brand or offering, in person or via communications. Key touchpoints are known as ‘moments of truth’ – those that make a real difference to customer attitude.
Cut-off A close date or period end, e.g. relating to an offer or price discount. (Source:
Cut-off (printing) The circumference of the cylinder on a web press. The effective maximum length of the impression paper is the circumference of the cylinder, less a gap where the plates join.
Cut-out Illustration with any unwanted background painted out or removed; an irregular shape.
Cyan The blue colour used in process printing.
Cybermediary An individual or organisation that collects a fee for facilitating transactions over the internet without taking ownership of the products or services sold.
Cyberspace The world of the internet. From the Greek ‘kybernetes’, meaning steersman or governor. Originally a term from computer science then adopted by science fiction, particularly the work of William Gibson, who is regarded as coining the term.
CyberWallet A technology for enabling secure transactions over networks developed by V-ONE Corporation and designed to run in conjunction with World Wide Web browsers. It will hold information on up to 16 credit cards or bank accounts. It is especially designed to prevent merchant fraud and is based on Secure Transaction Channel technology (see STC). CyberWallet has been licensed to Checkfree and Spyglass as part of the Electronic Business Co-op (EBC). See network payment system and Electronic Business Co-op in the hard copy
D2C Direct To Consumer.
DAB See Digital Audio (radio) Broadcasts.
DAGMAR Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. The CIM defines this as ‘a model for planning advertising in such a way that its success can be quantitatively monitored’.
DAL See Dedicated Advertiser Location.
Dampers Rollers, normally cloth covered, which dampen the non-image areas of a litho plate during printing. (Source:
Data A general term for information but particularly where used for input material for a computer. Also used for the trail left by surfers as they traverse the net.
Data capture Information taken on to a computer system. (Source: Marketing Week)
Data controller A defined person responsible for data protection in a company.
Data elements Individual piece of information, e.g. initial or birthplace.
Data Encryption Standard (DES) A standard algorithm for encrypting data.
Data mining The analysis of data for relationships. With information supplied over the net already in digital format, details can be loaded into databases where software can search for similarities, differences and patterns that can feed into marketing initiatives or launches.
Data Over Cable Interface Specification (DOCSIS) Cable modem specifications set by the MCNS group of cable operators in North America (Source: Marketing Week)
Data processing The manipulation of data using a computer. This may be to produce a mailing file and may include a series of processes such as deduplication, sorting for mailing and selection into different ways for different mailing packs.
Data protection The prevention of the passing of an individual’s personal information from one computer system where the information legitimately resides to other computer systems without the consent of the individual.
Data subject The legal term to refer to the individual whose data is held.
Data warehouse Repository of subject-orientated, historical data designed to optimise analysis rather than transaction handling; used for regular extraction and analysis of data from large transaction databases. (Sources: Leventhal 2002, Dyche 2000)
Database A collection of records retained permanently on computer, constantly updated and supporting a range of applications. Data may be added from other sources e.g. questionnaires and telemarketing reports. (Source:
Database Management System (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications.
Database server A stand-alone computer in a local area network that holds and manages the database. It implies that database management functions, such as locating the actual record being requested, is performed in the server computer. Contrast with file server, which acts as a remote disk drive and requires that large parts of the database, for example, entire indexes, be transmitted to the user’s computer where the real database management tasks are performed. (Source:
Datafeed Also known as ‘Productfeed’. CSV/XML output file of products sold on a website (containing product name, price, description, deeplink URL, serial number, stock quantity, size, etc.) often exchanged between a retailer and its intermediaries and suppliers.
Datamart Subject-specific data warehouse normally used by one department or group of users in a company for a defined set of tasks. Small subset/extract from a datawarehouse for analysis. (Sources: Leventhal 2002, Dyche 2000)
Daughter window Subject-specific data warehouse normally used by one department or group of users in a company for a defined set of tasks. Small subset/extract from a datawarehouse for analysis. (Sources: Leventhal 2002, Dyche 2000)
Davac A dry-gummed matt surface printing paper. (Source:
DAVIC See Digital Audio Video Interactive Council.
Daypart Broadcasting term for a section of the viewing or listening day.
DBMS See Database Management System.
DDA The Disability Discrimination Act (UK), which is of great significance to marketers in relation to accessibility of online communications (websites, etc.).
Dead link A URL that no longer points to the information it was written to reach. Usually this happens because the document has been moved or deleted.
Dead matter Copy which is finished with, or which will not be used. (Source:
Deadlock A situation wherein two or more processed are unable to proceed because each is waiting for one of the others to do something. A common example is a program communicating to a server, which may find itself waiting for output from the server before sending anything more to it, while the server is similarly waiting for input from the controlling program before outputting anything. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Deads Delivery points that are no longer relevant, either as ‘gone aways’ , ‘undeliverables’ or ‘no longer at that address through movement or death’.
Debit transfer A transfer of funds in which the payer issues a payment order to the payee, the payee takes the order to the payee’s bank and the order is passed back to the payer’s bank in exchange for the actual funds. Consumer payments by check are a type of debit transfer. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Dedicated Advertiser Location (DAL) Interactive television advert space that enables the viewer to press their ‘red’ button to respond or access more information.
Deductive research Deductive research refers to data that is appropriate and reliable and therefore leads directly to conclusions.
Deduplication System of removing names and addresses which appear in a list more than once.
Deep link A hyperlink that takes the user directly to a page within a website, instead of to the home page. For example, used in affiliate relationships where a partner wishes to offer a link to a specific product or information page.
Deep linking advert An advert that links to website page with content pertinent to the advert. (Source:
Deep space Describes the national location of any program that has gone wrong. Especially used with programs that just sit there silently grinding along after either failure or some output is expected. “Uh-oh I should have gotten a prompt ten seconds ago. The program’s in deep space somewhere.” (Source: Marketing Week)
Deep-etch The process of etching a litho plate below the surface for long-run work (Source:
Default browser The browser that gets executed when you click on a link or any HTML file on your computer.
Definition The degree of detail and sharpness in a reproduction (Source:
Degradation The result of overloading a computer system to the extent that terminal operators are affected.
Delint To modify a code to remove problems detected when linting.
Deliverability Deliverability refers to ensuring email messages are delivered and aren’t blocked by spam filters because the email content or structure falsely identifies a permissionbased email as a spammer, or because the sender’s IP address has a poor reputation for spam.
Delivery point A description of an address or other location of where a delivery will take place, used both as a postal and general term. (Source:
Delphi A technique that treats a group of individuals as experts and gives each equal weight in contribution to knowledge.
Demand Side Platform (DSP) A system that allows digital advertisers to manage multiple ad exchange and data exchange accounts through one interface. Real time bidding for display online ads takes place within the ad exchanges, and by utilising a DSP, marketers can manage their bids for the banners and the pricing for the data that they are layering on to target their audiences. (Source:
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) An area of an organization’s network which is open to the public over the internet and is separated from the organization’s private network by a firewall. The resources in the demilitarised zone are typically Web servers and are often outsourced by the organization to an Internet Service Provider which locates the DMZ at the ISP’s point of presence (POP). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Demographics The description of a group of consumers, most often age, gender, household income, level of education, marital status, employment status, number of people in the household, and region of the country.
Demography The study of populations, their characteristics, movements, distribution, and changes. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Density The number of characters contained in a specific area of magnetic tape.
Depth interview Unstructured informal interview to ascertain attitudes and motivation.
DES See Data Encryption Standard.
Descriptive billing A system of credit card billing in which individual charge slips are not returned with
the bill. Federal Reserve Board Regulation Z requires that if a charge slip is not enclosed, the bill must provide the date, the amount, the seller’s name and the location where the transaction took place for each transaction. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Descriptive research Research that focuses on such factors as product performance, market size, trends, market share and competitive activities. It is invariably quantitative and may be either continuous or ad hoc.
Design The presentation of a media form showing the general look of the layout, colour etc. to indicate how the final product will appear. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Design for analysis An aspect of website design that gives choices to users which reveal user characteristics and behaviour.
Design persona(s) See Personas.
Designation marks Identification letters which confirm the sequence of a book, prior to its make-up.
Desk research Research carried out by examining published material.
Desktop The bottom-level window on a computer screen. The term was popularised by the Apple Mac interface, which made the space available for saving fonts, organising and personalising icons and programmes. It was adopted by Windows 95. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer can be configured to replace the desktop, enabling access to the Web to be seamlessly integrated. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Desktop publishing A custom-made, graphics-oriented microcomputer linked to a laser printer to produce high-quality documents with both copy and/or illustration. (Source:
Despew To automatically generate a large amount of garbage on the net, especially from an automated posting program gone wild.
Destination site Typically a commercial site where a company promotes or sells its products and services, in contrast to intermediary sites such as a portal or media site.s
DHTML See Dynamic HTML.
Dial-up The most basic form of Internet access where an individual computer uses a modem to dial into a host server that serves as an on-ramp to the networks. Such connections are the most fragile because they at the mercy of phone systems. However, this is the most popular form of access for majority of home users and mobile professionals. (Source: Computer Active)
Dialogue box Displayed in Windows, normally used to display a message, which could be a warning, from the program user. At the bottom of the dialogue box are buttons: OK and Cancel are the two standard buttons. (Source:
Diary A record of transactions or other behaviour as used in research. (Source: Marketing Week)
DID Delay In Delivery.
Die Unlike crash, which is used primarily of hardware, this verb is used of both hardware and software.
Die cutter A cutter which is specially shaped to punch out paper or card into irregular shapes. (Source:
Die-stamping A type of printing where the characters are set in relief. Popularly known as embossed.
Differential Work Factor Cryptography (DWFC) A technology embedded in Lotus Notes Release 4.0 that allows export of 64 bit cryptography without special permits (see export law) while assuring the US government that government agencies can decrypt messages encoded using the technology as easily as they can decrypt conventional 40 bit cryptography. The government generated a public/private key pair and gave the public key to Lotus. Lotus uses this public key to bind into each Lotus Notes 64 bit key a 24 bit work factor reduction capability. A cracker must still decrypt a 64 key. (See public key cryptography in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Digibox A SkyDigital satellite decoder (though now commonly used to refer to any digital signal converter, decoder or ‘set-top box’).
Digital Data stored and transmitted electronically that can be transformed for interaction in different forms: text, images, sound and video.
Digital Audio (radio) Broadcasts (DAB) Audio content transmitted as digital signals, offering higher fidelity of received sound and greater resilience against transmission interference than analogue signals, plus additional information-carrying opportunities.
Digital Audio Video Interactive Council (DAVIC) A committee which sets standards for digital transmission of multimedia in Europe. See DOCSIS. See transmission and multimedia in the hard copy dictionary. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual.)
Digital broadcasting TV/radio transmission standard that relays sound and pictures via digital (not analogue) signals, enabling increased channel capacity in a given bandwidth and higher fidelity transmissions.(See DAB, for example)
Digital cash Electronic currency that only exists online. Companies developing this form of currency include CyberCash and DigiCash. With a participating bank – one which offers digital cash facilities – customers send them a cheque and then the bank sends special software that allows the customers to download “digital coins” to their PC and use it to make purchases over the Web. Another option is for a bank to offer a digital money account. (Source:
Digital Certificate A public key that has been digitally signed by a trusted authority (the financial institution) to identify the user of the public key. Digital certificates are used for encrypting information in online transactions. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
Digital marketing ‘Digital marketing’ has a similar meaning to ‘Electronic marketing’ – both describe the management and execution of marketing using electronic media such as the web, email, interactive TV, wireless media in conjunction with digital data about customers characteristics and behaviour.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) Software encryption/security that prevents the unauthorised copying and distribution of digital information, most popularly used in connection with digital music (MP-3 formats, etc.). Access can be limited to the number of times a piece of content is accessed from a single machine or user account; the number of times access permissions can be passed on; or the lifespan of a piece of content.
Digital Satellite System (DSS) A network of satellites that broadcast digital data. An example of a DSS is DirecTV, which broadcasts digital television signals. DSS’s are expected to become more important as the TV and computer converge into a single medium for information and entertainment. (Source:
Digital signature An electronically created signature that can be applied ‘en masse’ to letters to appear personalised.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) A technology that allows the transmission of many forms of data, voice, and video for limited distances over the standard twisted-pair copper wire that is widely used to connect home and business telephone lines to telephone company central offices. DSL generally offers much higher transmission speeds than standard modems or ISDN but lower speeds (i.e. less bandwidth) than cable modems or T1 lines. Also see High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line and Other Digital Subscriber Line. See transmission, ISDN, bandwidth, and cable modem in the hard copy dictionary. (Source:
Digital TV TV transmission standard which relays signals in a series of 0s and 1s (bits) allowing increased channel capacity in a given bandwidth.
Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) Originally called digital video disc, the name has changed to encourage the huge range of media that the new format can hold. A DVD can hold 28 times more information than a CD-ROM (up to 17 gigabytes of video, audio or other information), guaranteeing very high quality and capable of featuring full-length films and the like. Now in mainstream production. (Source:
Dink Said of a machine that is too small to be worth bothering with.
DirecPC A service from Hughes Network Systems that uses a VSAT (which see) antenna and a PC card to capture satellite broadcasts and download large files at 1.5 to 2 Mbits per second. Requests for files are sent by users using modems over telephone lines. (Source:
Direct access A means of accessing a point within a storage system without a sequential search. It goes straight to the required point of information. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Direct mail Mail sent through the letterbox either to advertise or to sell goods or services.
Direct mail advertising Advertising through the post.
Direct mail shot Single direct mail package (as opposed to series or campaign).
Direct marketing The IDM’s preferred definition is “The planned recording, analysis and tracking of individual customers’ responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships.”
Direct response Advertising or selling through any medium inviting the consumer to respond to the advertiser.
Direct response list A list of known responders to direct marketing solicitations. This list may include those who have responded, but are not known mail-order buyers.
Direct selling Selling directly from producer to consumer without any intermediary.
Direct to Home (DTH) Satellite transmissions received into the home via a dish, as distinct from satellite transmissions relayed via a cable system.
Directories A World Wide Web directory is a Web site that is used to locate websites and web pages in predefined areas of interest. For each of these predefined areas the directory provides a set of hypertext links to all Web pages that fall within that area of interest. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Directory A structure for organizing files on a computer or on a network. Directories may be protected or shared using various methods for information security. Common directory structures include NetWare Directory Services, X.500 (a standard), and Banyan Vines. See file, network, and information security in the hard copy dictionary. (Source:
Directory Service Markup Language (DSML) A language which allows XML enabled applications, particularly electronic commerce applications, to share information from a variety of directories without knowing the specific data formats for each vendor’s directory. The language extends the LDAP (lightweight directory access protocol) to Web applications. (Source:
Discount pricing A reduction from the list price, usually offered to those purchasing in bulk or paying cash with order. (Source:
Discount voucher code sites Discount voucher code sites such as My Voucher Codes list vouchers or coupons rated by other shoppers by shop or product from all the best voucher sites. Online voucher codes which shoppers enter when they have added products to their shopping baskets are very popular. There are also many voucher sites such as UK Hot Deals where quality of vouchers are rated.
Discretionary buying/spending power The amount of disposable income a person has left, after paying for fixed expenses and household needs.
Discussion Boards Also known as newsgroups, forums, discussion groups and Internet discussion boards or IDBs. Discussion boards allow users to read all the messages left by other users on a particular topic and post new or follow-up messages. The fact that (unlike chat rooms) discussion boards don’t happen in “real-time” can also be a significant advantage because people can participate without having to be online at the same time. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Discussion Group An alternative name for the Newsgroups supported by Usenet. (Source:
Disintermediation Removing the middleman. The term is a popular buzzword used to describe many internet-based businesses that use the world wide web to sell products directly to customers rather than going through traditional retail channels.
Disk A computer storage device for programs, data and documents. Disks can be small portable size for easy mobility of information. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Display Advertising matter designed to a distinctive size or quality, usually with illustrations on enhanced graphics.
Display advertising Advertiser pays an online company for space to display a static or hyperlinked banner or logo on one or more of the online company’s pages.
Display face A large typeface designed for display size advertisements, i.e. 14-point x height or more.
Display matter Typography which is set apart from the text, e.g. headings.
Distributed InterNet Applications Architecture (DNA) The application development model for the Windows platform. It specifies, for example, how to develop distributed applications and also how to enable existing data and external applications to support the Internet. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Distribution Has two meanings. The process and structure by which goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer. A statistical term for frequency distribution, describing the spread of data. (Source:
Distribution centre A technique used in warehouses enabling a company to keep an inventory and location control.
Distribution channel The route taken by a product as it passes from a seller to a buyer.
DL An envelope size which is 110 x 220 mm. A size commonly used to take A4 material folded twice to one-third.
DLS See Dynamic Label Segment.
DMA Direct Marketing Association. Trade association for direct marketing organisations and suppliers.
DMZ See Demilitarized Zone.
DNA See Distributed InterNet Applications Architecture.
DNP Do not promote.
DNS See Domain Name System.
DOCSIS See Data Over Cable Interface Specification.
Document Management Document Management is concerned with the storage and retrieval of documents. In a large organisation there will usually be many different types of document. Some may exist on paper only and others may be stored in an electronically readable format. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSL) Used to transform or style SGML documents. Similarly to how XSL is used with XML. (Source:
Document Type Definition (DTD) A descriptor for a document which indicates the attributes of a particular type of document (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Domain name Unique technical name for a website’s main address (e.g. Also known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator). The last part (.uk, .com etc.) is the ‘top level domain’. (Source: Marketing Week)
Domain name registration The process of reserving a unique web address that can be used to refer to your website.
Domain Name System (DNS) This is the “telephone directory ” of the Internet. Under the cover the Internet works by giving each website a unique address, known as the IP address. It is in the form of a series of digits separated by dots. When you click on a link or type in a URL (e.g., the Browser passes the URL to the DNS. It looks up the URL and obtains the IP address (in this case and passes it back to the Browser. The Browser uses the IP address to locate the website. If you know the IP address you can type it in yourself. (Source:
Domainist Said of an internet address because the part to the right of the “@” specifies a nested series of “domains” eg specifies the machine called snark in the subdomain called thyrsus within the op-level domain called com. (Source:
Dongle 1) A security or copy protection device for commercial microcomputer programs. 2) Any physical electronic key or transferable ID required for a program to function. (Source:
Donor list A charity’s list of all persons, past and present, who have donated to them.
Door-to-door Street-by-street delivery of unaddressed advertising material through letterboxes.
Dot The individual element of print from which a half-tone reproduction is made up, e.g. the dots which make up newsprint. Definition is measured in dots-per-inch or DPI.
Dot for dot Reproduction of an already screened half-tone by photographing it as if it were fine line.
Dot matrix printer See Matrix printer.
Dot spread An accidental unacceptably enlarged dot size formation which occurs during printing.
Dots-per-inch (DPI, dpi) The way resolution of scanned and printed images is measured as well as those displayed on a monitor. These pictures are made up of tiny dots. The more dots there are per inch, the better the image.
Double crown British paper size 20” x 30”. Also d-crown. (Source: Computer Active)
Double-page spread (DPS) Print which continues over two facing pages, as if they were one page.
Down time Non-productive time when a printing machine is being maintained or made ready.
Download Import a computer file, often via the internet.
DPI See Dots-per-inch.
DPS See Double-page spread.
Drift Printing which has run off register, usually due to mechanical or paper imperfection.
Drill down When an online user accesses more and more pages of the website, i.e. goes deeper into the content of the site. (Source:
Drip irrigation Collecting information about customer needs through their lifetime.
DRM See Digital Rights Management. Full text moved to ‘Digital’ alphabetical position
Drop Laser printing term. The length from one perforation to the next.
Drop ship An arrangement whereby marketers pass orders to manufacturers to deliver goods direct to the consumer.
Drop-cap Capital letters at the beginning of a paragraph which rise above or extend below the depth of the rest of the text line. A large initial capital at the beginning of a block of text.
Drop-date Specified date upon which a mailing will be presented to the post office. (May also apply to door-to-door distribution.)
Drop-in The superimposing of one piece of graphic material onto another, usually in processing stage of printing plates.
Drop-out To take out specified areas of originating material during processing stage of printing plate preparation.
DRTV Direct Response Television.
Drum Cylinder bearing characters used in line printing.
Dry mounting A type of photographic mounting which uses heat sensitive adhesives.
Dry test A test whereby consumers are asked to order before the product has been manufactured. The manufacture only goes ahead in cases where the response will guarantee a desired profit level. Where this level is not met and the product never manufactured, compensation is given. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Drying time The time taken for ink on a sheet to dry, so that other processes can be carried out on the sheet (e.g. further printing, binding, etc.).
DSL See Digital Subscriber Line.
DSML See Directory Service Markup Language.
DSN Don’t say no.
DSP See Demand Side Platform.
DSS See Digital Satellite System.
DSSL See Document Style Semantics and Specification Language.
DTD See Document Type Definition.
DTH See Direct To Home.
DTT Digital Terrestrial Television.
Dual distribution Using two channels to market a product.
Duality The issuance of credit cards from both major bank card associations (Visa and MasterCard) by an individual bank.
Dummy A brochure or promotional piece created as a mock version of the final piece to imitate weight, shape etc.
Dummy name A unique name inserted into a mailing list to track list usage. (See also Decoy).
Dump Transfer of a computer file either in or out of storage.
Dump letter A mailing to a book or record company subscriber which offers all units in a series at a discount.
Dunning cycle A series of reminder letters sent to prompt customers to settle their bill.
Dunning letter Reminder letter to obtain payment for outstanding account. Usually a series, becoming more forceful the longer the overdue account remains unpaid.
Dupe An abbreviation for duplication, e.g. duplicate transparency film, plate, etc. produced
Dupe elimination A computer process run to eliminate all but one record, from a number of duplicates in a list.
Duplex Printing on both sides in computer printing.
Duplication Two or more names and address records for the same potential recipient when two or more lists are run against each other.
DVD See Digital Versatile Disk.
DWFC See Differential Work Factor Cryptography.
Dynamic ad delivery Based upon predetermined criteria, dynamic ad delivery is the process by which a mobile advertisement is delivered, via a campaign management platform, to a publisher’s mobile content. (Source IAB)
Dynamic ad placement The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user’s request. Allows alteration of specific ads placed on a page based on any data available to the placement programme. (Source:
Dynamic headlines Web page headlines rendered dynamically in response to a keyphrase typed into a search engine. The headline is exactly the same as the keyphrase typed by the user or defaults to a suitable alternative.
Dynamic HTML (DHTML) A development to the basic mark-up language that makes documents accessible on the Web. Dhtml gives the page designer more control over fonts, positioning of elements and interaction. Dhtml pages can allow elements such as graphics to move across the page, text can respond to the user’s actions, messages can change and so on. (Source:
Dynamic Label Segment (DLS) The extra information available to digital audio radio (DAB) listeners via the radio’s LCD screen. For example, the name of the DJ, name of the song, advertisers’ phone numbers and web addresses.
E or e The most used vowel in the new media language. Originally an abbreviation for “electronic “, “e” is now attached to any term, company name or business card to give it the illusion of wired capability. Examples include e-commerce, e-business and ezine. (Source:
E-business The transformation of key business processes through the use of internet technologies. (Source: IBM)
E-cash Electronic currency that substitutes for money in online transactions. E-cash can be passed along from person to person almost as if it were physical cash. By eliminating the need for transactions fees and minimum purchase levels, e-cash makes ecommerce much more affordable. In the Internet’s early days there were serious security concerns over conducting commercial transactions where confidential information was transmitted. A problem using the Net is that any information sent from point A to point B often has to go through many other points in between, increasing the possibilities that someone else may intercept it. With e-cash the use of 128-bit encryption allows credit card account information to be safely transmitted over the Internet (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
E-commerce Commerce conducted over electronic platforms, such as buying products and services via the internet.
E-government The use of internet technologies to provide government services to citizens.
E-marketing The use of the internet and related digital information and communications technologies to achieve marketing objectives. Broadly equivalent to digital marketing.
E-zine An electronic magazine – in other words a magazine on the web. (Source:
EADP See Emergency Access Demonstration Program
EAN European article number. (Source:
Early payment discount A reduction offered for payment on an invoice being settled within a specified period.
Earned media Refers to favourable publicity gained through promotional efforts other than advertising, as opposed to paid media, which refers to publicity gained through advertising.
Earnings per 1,000 impressions (EPM) Total commission amount * 1000/number impressions.
Earnings Per Click (EPC) A relative rating that illustrates the average ability to convert clicks into commissions. Net Commissions Earned (after refunds) divided by Total Number of Clicks = Earning Per Click (EPC).
EBD See Electronic Bill Delivery.
Eblast A single email focusing on a single promotion (or a single e-newsletter carrying a limited number of messages). Also known as a solus email, an eblast may form one wave of a wider multi-media or multi-message campaign.
ECC See Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem.
ECDL See European Computer Driving Licence.
Echeck A demand for payment sent electronically over a network by a buyer (generally a consumer) to a seller (generally a merchant) and sent on over a network to the seller’s bank and thence to the buyer’s bank. See ADC. See EDI in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source:
Econometrics A statistically based system of measuring (metrics) primarily financial results. The technique can actually be applied to measure any goal, not just financial.
Economic Profit Return on investment in excess of the average cost of capital in the overall market. Alternatively, profits excluding profits from the increase in value of inventory which the company holds. (Source:
ECR Electronic Cash Register (Source:
ECRM Customer relationship management (which see) using or incorporating digital marketing and communications techniques.
EDA See Exploratory data analysis.
EDGAR See Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system
EDI See Electronic Data Interchange.
Edit To change text, image or data prior to final production. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Editorial The contents of a publication, apart from advertising space.
Editorial mention A paragraph or two of editorial copy which is included in a publication (often a way of rewarding regular advertisers).
EFT Electronic Funds Transfer. (Source: Marketing Week)
EFT-POS See Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point-of-Sale.
Electoral roll The electoral roll is used to ensure a list contains correct addresses, or that the individual is listed (for credit scoring).
Electronic Bill Delivery (EBD) A system from Visa Interactive which enables banks to electronically deliver bills to consumers through the consumer’s PC or telephones. Eventually the system will allow consumers to send electronic payments back through their banks to the biller’s accounts receivable system. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Electronic cheque system A project by the FSTC that allows customers to write and sign secure cheques for transactions over insecure public networks, such as the Internet. The system uses crytographic processing in a PCMCIA card from Telequip Corporation to assure that the checks cannot be counterfeited or forged. (Source:
Electronic commerce E-commerce or electronic commerce is sale and purchase online. Retailers often do not have a brick and mortar shop and it can be easy for customers to purchase directly from home or office.
Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system A database available over the Internet that gives investors free and easy access to disclosure documents that publicly traded companies must file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) The transfer of data between different companies using networks, such as the Internet. As more and more companies get connected to the Internet, EDI is becoming increasingly important as an easy mechanism for companies to buy, sell, and trade information. ANSI has approved a set of EDI standards known as the X12 standards. (Source:
Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point-of-Sale (EFT-POS) The automatic transfer of funds, using a debit card at a retail point of sale, from a consumer’s demand deposit account to the retailer’s account. EFT-POS transactions pass through the retailer’s back office computer and, if the retailer is part of a chain, may also pass through the data centre of the retailer on its way to the EFT processor. (Source:
Electronic Payment Handling (EPH) The banking system capabilities needed to support Echeck (which see) and capable of reducing bank costs. The logical providers of EPH are automated clearing houses (which see in the hard copy dictionary). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) On-screen listings for digital TV viewers.
Electronic Prospect Relationship Management (EPRM) Using databased technology to manage customer-led generation programs and communications.
Electronic publishing The publication and circulation of information in an electronic form. (Source:
Electronic rights Copyrights extended to electronic media.
Electronic Tax Filing A offering of the Internal Revenue Service that allows taxpayers to file their tax returns on diskette or over a network. In 1994, 11.8 million tax returns were filed electronically or about 11% of all individual tax returns. The number was down 15.8% from 1993 because of increased IRS efforts to prevent the fraud which can be facilitated when tax returns are filed electronically. Fraud has caused the IRS to question its goal of getting 80% of Americans to file electronically by the year 2001. See RAL. (Source:
Element The basic building block of an HTML document. When an element consists of a start tag, an end tag, and text or some other content it can also be referred to as a “container”. An “empty element”, such as that commanding a line break, has only one tag and no content. (Source:
Elite Size of type for typewriters giving 12 characters per linear inch, 6 lines per vertical inch on standard space setting. (Source:
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) An alternative to the RSA encryption system which is based on the difficulty of solving elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems rather than on factoring large numbers. Developed and marketed by Certicom, ECC is especially suitable for environments, such as wireless devices and PC cards, where computational power is limited and high speed is required. For any given key size (measured in bits) ECC provides more security (is harder to decrypt without the key) than RSA. ECC is newer than RSA, has not developed as much supporting software, and has not been attacked for as long a time. (See RSA, encryption, key, bit, decryption, and Fundamental Tenet of Cryptography in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Em A unit of typographical measurement corresponding to the amount of line space occupied by a character as wide as the type is high. (originally the letter m.) See also En. (Source:
Email This is the grandfather of new media technologies and still the most widely used. Early commercial users often abandoned the technology for the brighter lights of the Web, only to return to the accessible simplicity of written communications.
Email bounce See Barfmail, Bounce message, Bounce rate, Hard bounce, Soft bounce.
Email marketing The use of outbound email marketing to achieve awareness, add value or achieve response.
Embedded format Advertising formats displayed in set spaces on a publisher’s page, such as buttons, banners, skyscrapers, etc.
Embossing The process of printing with a relief finish. (Source: Computer Active)
Emergency Access Demonstration Program (EADP) A federal program to demonstrate the feasibility of using key recovery in federal business applications. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Emoticon An acronym for emotion icon, composed of punctuation characters that indicate how an email or text message should be interpreted, e.g. :-) indicates the message shouldn’t be taken too seriously.
Emulsion A coating for film made up from light sensitive salts. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
En Typographical unit of measurement. 2 ens = 1 em.
Enclosure An item included in a direct mail pack, e.g. letter, brochure, application form.
Encode/ing To identify information by means of codes given to groups of characters
Encryption Encoding data and documents so they cannot be read without authorisation. A key is needed to decode and read the data. Reassures senders and recipients of sensitive data to know their data has not been tampered with while in transmission.
Encryption Engine A device planned by Hewlett-Packard and Gemplus SCA that would support basic encryption capabilities in a computer when combined with a separately installable policy card (which see) that controls the strength of the encryption algorithm. The combination permits the volume production and export from the US, without State Department approval, of computers potentially able to support many levels of encryption while still allowing State Department control of encryption strength (by approval or denial of the policy card) on an individual customer basis. (See encryption, RC2 and RC4 in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source:
End fold A fold or saddle-stitched booklet which has folded edge on the shortside (landscape).
End leaf Extra strong paper used to hold the body of a book to its jacket.
Endorsement Approval of one company given to another unrelated company. In direct mail this is often a recommendation from a company a customer knows, of a second, noncompetitive company.
Endpaper See End leaf.
Engagement rate The percentage of visitors who stay on the site for more than one page.
Engraving The etched printing plate for use in a litho press. Also, the print made from such a plate.
Enhanced Television (eTV) TV programming with extra features accessed via the digital remote, such as playing along with game shows, voting, donating, etc.
Enquirer Person who responds to a direct response advertisement or selling device for further information.
Enquiry A response to a direct marketing solicitation requesting further information. May also be called a lead.
Enquiry file A file of those people who have requested further information from a company, but who have not (yet) placed an order.
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Integration of diverse business applications into ‘application networks’ enabling automation of enterprise-wide tasks and processes.
Enterprise Resource Planning
(ERP) Software systems that permit organisations to manage resources across the enterprise, enabling the integration of various standard operational functions. For example, human resource, logistics and procurement management.
Enterprise Transaction Gateway (ETG) An EDI gateway developed by CLT Appraisal Services and running on Windows NT which supports multiple messaging protocols and transaction formats. (Source:
Enumeration district Basic area for collection of census and electoral data in UK, covering a geographical area of around 150 households. Census data is used for analysis and the electoral roll data can be used for mailing or cleaning and identifying aspects of other lists.
Envelope stuffer Promotional material enclosed in an envelope already containing either business letters, invoices or statements. Environment The macro-environment is outside conditions, over which a company has no control. The micro-environment is the internal conditions within which a company operates (eg Management, staffing, etc.). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
EPC See Earnings per click.
EPG See Electronic Programme Guide.
EPH See Electronic Payment Handling.
EPM See Earnings per 1,000 impressions.
EPRM See Electronic Prospect Relationship Management.
Erase To rub out or overwrite data, e.g. on magnetic tape or disk.
ERP See Enterprise Resource Planning.
ESP Email Service Provider.
ETG See Enterprise Transaction Gateway.
eTV See Enhanced Television.
European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) European wide qualification which enables people to demonstrate their competence in computer skills. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Evaluation The analysis of the results of a test or operation. (Source:
Even pages Left-hand pages with even numbers.
Event 1. An occurrence or happening of significance to a task or program, such as the completion of an asynchronous input/output operation. 2. A transaction or other activity that affects the records in a file.* (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Event-driven A kind of program, such as a graphical user interface, with a main loop which just waits for events to occur. Each event has an associated handler which is passed the details of the event, eg mouse button 3 pressed at position (355,990).* (Source:
Every-other-name A test where alternate names receive a control and test mailing or advertisement,sometimes known as an A/B split. (Source:
Exact match in PPC A match type which specifies that the ad should be displayed only when the exact phrase with no words associated are entered as the search term. For example, if the phrase match is defined by the advertiser as “plasma tvs”, the ad will only be displayed when the search engine user types this phrase, NOT when additional words extend the phrase such as ‘cheap plasma tvs’ or ‘plasma tvs sale’.
Exclusive distribution The practice where a manufacturer uses only one retailer or wholesaler in a given market.
Exclusive sponsorship An ad is displayed exclusively on a site.
Exclusive territories The practice by which an intermediary is required by the manufacturer to sell only within an assigned area.
Executable file A file with the extension .exe that will run on your PC when activated. They can be whole applications, such as Lotus SmartSuite, or smaller programs.
Exhibition lists The list of names of visitors to an exhibition. (Source: Computer Active)
Exit page The last web page an individual user looks at on a given website. Common exit page are often identified in the log file. A web merchant or publisher may modify the mos common exit pages in order to induce viewers to stay on the site for a longer time.
Expandable banners Fixed online advertising placements that expand over the page in the response t user action e.g.: mouseover. (Source: See also Rich Media an Skyscrapers.
Expanded type A typeface that is extended horizontally to give a wider than average size.
Expansion card Can be fitted in a PC to increase functionality. Examples include modems, graphics and soundcards
Expansion Slot Electrical connector fitted to the motherboard that lets an expansion card plug into the computer. (Source: Computer Active)
Experiential marketing Experiential marketing allows customers to engage and interact with brands products, and services. These personal experiences allow customers to ‘experience the brand and its benefits themselves in order to make more informed purchas decisions.
Expiration date A closing date given in copy to motivate the reader to respond to an offer. (Source: Computer Active)
Expire A term for a former subscriber (e.g. to a magazine series) who has not renewed.
Explicit knowledge Codified knowledge that is readily expressed and understood, such as business procedures.
Exploded view A drawing of an object which shows the individual parts in three dimensions. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Exploratory data analysis (EDA) Uses simple techniques to look for trends within data.
Exploratory research Exploratory research is preliminary research designed to identify the nature of marketing problem or opportunity, and to suggest further questions to askmeasurements to take. It uncovers underlying attitudes, ideas and hypotheses.
Export Law A United States export law, administered by the Department of State, forbids the export of cryptography software or hardware using a key longer than forty bits without a permit. Export to subsidiaries of US companies is permitted. The law exists primarily to prevent hostile groups from encrypting messages which the US intelligence agencies (See National Security Agency) will have difficulty decrypting. With the increasing speed of computers forty bit cryptography is considered relatively weak and has, in fact, been broken. The cryptography industry is pressing the government to change the law so that US companies can export cryptography which is competitive worldwide. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Exposure See Impression.
Extended type Typeface with characters wider than the normal roman type. Term expanded also used. (Source:
Extensible Authentication Protocol A framework for handling a variety of Point-to-Point Protocol authentication methods including cleartext, challenge/response, and arbitrary dialogue sequences. (See Pointto- Point Protocol, authentication, and challenge/response authentication in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) A protocol for creating and using legally binding Extensible Markup Language documents. The forms contain all the data, presentation, computational logic, and business semantics for a specific transaction and is signed digitally. XFDL may transform electronic data interchange (EDI) into a Web-based infrastructure. See digital signature and electronic data interchange in the hard copy dictionary. (Source:
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) The language used to create most mobile internet sites.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) A document description language used on web pages or applications, enabling HTML to be more flexible and allows additional description such as ‘price’ and ‘customer’ to be added to a document.
External affiliate network provider Finds relevant affiliates to manage tracking, payment and the provision of banner and text creative.
External link building A proactive approach to gain quality links from third-party sites. A proactive approach to gain quality links from third-party sites.
Extract A section of a printed item that is shown as a quotation and may be included as such in another published item. Should be shown as different to the main text either by typeface or size. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Extramercial Adverts/banners located in the extra space in the right column of internet web pages.
Extranet An extranet is a private site which is accessed by a limited group of users over the internet. Access to extranet sites is restricted by password or other means. (Source:
Eyeball To look over a rented mailing list to ensure that the names are genuine/satisfactory/as described. Also colloquialism for customers who take a look at (visit) your website and other online marketing and promotions.
Eyeballs Ad industry speak, a quaint reference to the number of people who lay their eyes upon specific advertisements or online content. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Face The printing surface of a piece of type, or a style of type (typeface). (Source:
Faceted navigation Allows website searchers to narrow their onsite search using criteria such as product attributes (brand, colour, size etc.) and price. Usually displayed as search filter criteria.
Facing matter An advertisement position facing an editorial page.
Facing pages Pages which face each other in a catalogue or other publication.
Facsimile An exact reproduction of a document or document part. Also fax. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Factor analysis A mathematical procedure for reducing data used as a forecasting tool.
Fair copy A copy of a document with no correction marks.
Fair sample A term often used when asking for a list sample from a broker or owner.
Fake clicks The PPC ad networks detect multiple clicks from the same computer (IP address) and say they filter them out. However, there are automated techniques to mimic multiple clicks from different locations and even services through which you can pay a team of people across the world to click on these links.
Fake user interface (FUI) Those irritating online banner ads that have false interface elements such as pull down menus, search boxes, input fields etc. to trick users into clicking on them.
Fanfold A type of fold, also known as a concertina fold, which opens in the same way as a hand-held fan. (Source:
FAQ See Frequently Asked Questions.
Favourites Links (to web pages) you save because you think that you are likely/wish to revisit them. Netscape Navigator and some other browsers use the term ‘bookmark’ for the same thing.
FAW Finished artwork. (Source: Computer Active)
Fax An abbreviation of facsimile transmission.
FD Finished drawing, i.e. artwork which has been worked on to standards acceptable for reproduction.
Feature A distinctive element of a product advantageous to the user.
FEDMA Federation of European Direct Marketing Associations (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Feed edge The leading edge of a sheet of paper, as it is presented to the printing machine.
Feed holes Holes placed at regular intervals in the edges of tape or paper to guide the feed of the paper smoothly.
Feed or RSS Feed Blog, news or other content is published by an XML standard and syndicated for other sites or read by users in RSS reader services such as Google Reader, personalised home pages or email systems. RSS stands for really simple syndication.
Feedback Information telling the sender whether and how the message was received.
Feeder A mechanism on a press that separates and lifts sheets into the preprinting position.
Feeds See ‘Trusted Feeds’.
Feel Descriptive of the finish, surface and bulk of paper – how the texture ‘feels’ to the hand.
Field A group of data elements that together create a logical string of information, e.g. address.
FIFO First In, First Out. Stock which is issued in the order it is received. See also FILO.
File A collection of data, in direct marketing usually grouped as a list of customers, enquirers, etc.
File layout The structure and arrangement of data lying within a file (including the data’s size and sequence).
File maintenance List cleaning by correcting addresses and errors, and adding/subtracting those names who wish to be excluded from/included on, the list.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) The mechanism for moving files between two machines over the internet. An FTP site is a collection of documents, software, etc. which internet users can transfer to their computers using FTP.
Fill-in Words added to spaces within the body of the copy, either by hand or by machine to personalise the text to the recipient.
Filler An extra illustration or piece of copy put into a newspaper or magazine, in order to fill up empty space. (Source:
Filler advertisement An advertisement not booked for insertion, but included to fill up redundant space.
Film coating A very light paper coating.
Film mechanical Camera-ready material prepared on film, rather than on paper.
Film positive Photographic print or transparent film taken from artwork for use by the printer.
Film processor A machine that automatically develops, fixes, washes and dries exposed film.
Film/repro stage Four-colour separated film. Post artwork stage and preprint stage in reproduction.
FILO First In, Last Out. Stock issued in rotation in which the most recent batch is issued first. See also FIFO.
Filter Coloured sheet placed over a lens to eliminate specific colours reaching the film. Used in photography.
FIMAS Financial Institution Message Authentication Standard. See X9.9
Financial Institution Message Authentication Standard (FIMAS) See X9.9 (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Findability An assessment of how easy it is for a web user to locate a single content object or to use browse navigation and search system to find content.
Fine screen Screen type with over 120 lines to the inchScreen type with over 120 lines to the inch
Finish Has two meanings. The type of surface a material has (e.g. matt or gloss); also, the processes a printed sheet may go through before it is incorporated into a book, magazine, newspaper or other publication.
Finished artwork Artwork from which print can be produced.
Finished rough Material which is the near mock-up of a proposed advertisement or publication produced for approval or estimating.
Finishing The process between printing and completion (i.e. binding, stitching and folding).
Firefighting What system administrators have to do to correct sudden operational problems. An opposite of hacking. ‘Been hacking your new newsreader?’ ‘No, a power glitch hosed the network and I spent the afternoon fighting fires.’
Firewall Provides security for a computer or local network by preventing unauthorised access and tallowing legitimate traffic from one part of a network to another. It sits as a barrier between the web and your computer in order to prevent hacking, viruses or unapproved data transfer. (Source: based on
First class discount A discount scheme which entitles the mailer to a discount on the first class postal service if mailing is pre-sorted and carries a postal paid impression.
First class mail Post which should be delivered the following day, if posted by the last collection the previous evening. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
First colour down The first colour printed on a sheet, where more than one is required.
First day cover A decorative envelope and stamp, issued in conjunction with the Post Office commissioning a new set of commemorative stamps. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
First generation An early model of machine or product. The first reproduction of an image before it has been copied.
First proof The earliest proof used for checking by proof readers.
First revise The corrected proof made after errors noted on the first proof have been reset.
First-time buyer A person who is buying a company’s product or service for the first time.
First-time visitor A visitor to a website who has never visited the site before. See Repeat visitor.
Fit Term used to describe the matching of different print films to give an accurate image and level of register on the final printed item.
Fit-up The act of fitting printing films so that all colours register and are in correct imposition.
Fixed cost A constant cost, regardless of whether or not goods or services are sold or in what quantity.
Fixed field An area on a computer into which a variety of information can be input although the space and position relative to other fields do not vary.
Fixed line address An address which is forced into a fixed number of lines, normally each line being specifically allocated to a part of the address, such as name, street or town etc.
Flag An indicator against chosen addresses in order to treat them differently at a later stage (e.g. by selection, suppression or segmentation). Also known as markers.
Flagging To apply a flag or indicator to a particular address in order to segment later
Flaky Subject to frequent loss. A system that is flaky is working – sort of – enough that you are tempted to try to use it – but fails frequently enough that the odds in favour of finishing what you start are low.
Flame bait A posting intended to trigger a flame war, or one that invites flames in reply. (Source: See Flame war and Flaming.
Flame mail Email of an angry or abusive nature. Typically sent as a complaint against breaches of standards of conduct or courtesy.
Flame war An acrimonious dispute, especially when conducted on a public electronic forum such as USENET. (Source:
Flaming Sending abusive emails to a sender of an unsolicited inappropriately targeted message – often a sales message. Before filtering facilitates became widely used, such mass mails could clog up a user’s mailbox and, in extreme circumstances, bring the internet to a grinding halt.
Flash Web design software that creates animation and interactive elements which are quick to download. (Source: IAB)
Flash impression The total number of requests made for pages holding flash-based content by users of that site in the period being measured. (Source: IAB)
Flat art work Origination material prepared or pasted on board ready for camera. (Source:
Flat rate A set rate for advertising space or time, not subject to discount for either volume or frequency.
Flat stitch A method of stapling a book together, performed while the book is spread flat.
Flat wrapping Wrapping a newspaper or magazine without folding it, with either a film or paper covering.
Flexography Print method using flexible rubber plates or stereos and aniline-based inks.
Flip-flop An electronic term given to an electronic circuit which represents the binary values either 0 or 1, by being in one of these states.
Floating format The holding of information on tape or disk using no specific fields or points so that identification is possible only by reference to these areas.
Floppy disk A plastic disk capable of storing information, for use in microcomputers.
Flowchart A diagram that shows sequence in a series of steps (e.g. in a computer program).
Flush left/right Type aligned with either the left- or right-hand margins. Also known as justified left/right.
FOC Free Of Charge.
Focoltone Proprietary colour matching system similar to Pantone.
Focus group A group of consumers led by a researcher in discussion to collect opinion about a product or market.
Foil Photographic films prepared for 4-colour process work are sometimes known as ‘foils’.
Fold (online) An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the web page arrives. One does not have to scroll down (or sideways) to see it. (Source:
Fold (paper) A paper turned and creased intentionally.
Fold-out A folded sheet in a text which folds out to extend the normal page size.
Folding guide Printed marks on stationery which indicate where folds should be placed.
Folding, parallel A method of folding a sheet, with folds parallel to one another.
Folding, right-angle A method of folding a sheet, with folds perpendicular to one another.
Folio Page number at the head or foot of a page of text.
Follow-up A subsequent promotion to prospects or customers, usually those who have not replied to the first offer.
Font/fount A complete set of characters, upper and lower case, all of the same typeface and point size.
Fonts A collection of characters with predefined styles and sizes – such as Courier or Times New Roman.
Foolscap A paper size (33OX200mm) which used to be regarded as standard, but now replaced by A4 (297x 2 10 mm). (Source: Computer Active)
Foot Bottom of a page.
Footfall Colloquialism for website visitors and traffic.
Format The physical specification for a printed product including size, number of pages, folds and gluing etc.
Former buyer A person who has not purchased from a company, usually within the past twelve months.
Forum Any discussion group accessible through a dial-in BBS, a mailing list, or a newsgroup. A forum functions much like a bulletin board; users submit postings for all read and discussion ensues. Contrast real-time chat via talk mode or point-to-point personal email. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006) See Chat (forum/rooms).
Forward dating A sales method whereby a customer buys goods or services in an off-season, but need only to pay later when the season starts. (Source:
Fourth generation Photosetters using lasers to expose characters.
Fourth Generation mobile telecommunication technology See 4G.
Fragrance mailing A mailing in which one element has had a fragrance or simulated fragrance applied to it.
Frame See Wire frame.
Frame rate The number of frames of video displayed during a given time. The higher the frame rate, the more high-quality the image will be. (Source:
Franking The process of marking an envelope or a postcard with a postage-paid impression. Franking machines normally work on a meter system, operated on a prepayment basis with the local post office.
Frankly, I’m puzzled A separate piece (usually of a smaller size) within a mailing designed to dispel any sdoubts that a recipient may have about an offer. Often used as a follow-up.
Free trial A sample of goods or services, either for a limited period or in a limited quantity.
Free-keeper A modest gift, given as an incentive in return for placing an order by mail, that can be kept even if the buyer returns the goods ordered.
Free-ride A mailing device inserted into another mailing in order to capitalise on postage costs.
Free-standing stuffer (insert) A promotional piece inserted loose into a newspaper or magazine. Also known as free-fall or flier.
Free/flier An additional small insert in a mailing, usually included as a ‘last-minute’ offer of a free gift. Normally a single sheet.
Freefone A British Telecom service. A firm offering a freefone number pays for any call received on the freefone line.
Freelance An independent supplier who undertakes project work on a fee basis.
Freepost A Royal Mail service. A firm offering a freepost address pays postage on all mail delivered to the freepost address.
Freeview UK operator of free digital terrestrial television service, launched on 30 October 2002 by consortium of BBC, National Grid Wireless (prev. Crown Castle UK) and BSkyB.
Freeware Software that is available free of charge. If software is free of charge for a limited (trial) period it is called shareware.
Freeze To fix software or a document to prevent it changing.
Frequency The number of times a person has ordered from a company within a given period. This word is often used in conjunction with recency and monetary value, in order to forecast future sales potential. In commercial TV parlance, refers to the number of times the target audience has an opportunity to see/hear the campaign/commercial over a period of time.
Frequency capping Limiting the number of times a given advertisement is presented to the same person.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) An acronym and euphemism for the information on a site or mailing list that provides answers to the very basic questions new users ask. Often maintained by users and enthusiasts, it is customer support on the cheap. (Source:
Friend-of-a-friend The recommendation made by one person to an advertiser to put a friend on their mailing list. See also Member get member. (Source:
Front end General term for the devices which control a computerised photosetting machine (e.g. keypad, screens and editing facilities).
FTP See File Transfer Protocol.
FUI See Fake User Interface.
Fulfilment The process of dealing with an order or enquiry, from its receipt to delivery. This includes opening, processing, administration, packing and transport.
Fulfilment pack(age) Package containing the goods or details of the service, or details in response to an enquiry.
Full colour Four-colour printing process. The four colours are cyan, magenta, yellow and black.
Full point Full stop.
Full run rate The lower price rate given for those printing jobs carried out in large quantities (e.g. mailing rollout).
Function codes Codes that control the functions of a machine, rather than the generation of characters.
Functional costs The grouping of operation expenses into various categories.
Fuzzy Logic A type of logic that recognizes more than simple true and false values. With fuzzy logic, propositions can be responded with degrees of truthfulness and falsehood. For example, the statement, today is sunny, night be 100% true if there are no clouds, 80% true if there are a few clouds, 50% true if it’s hazy and0% true if it rains all day. Fuzzy Logic has proved to be particularly useful in expert system and other artificial intelligence applications. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Gaevert proof A proof produced photographically to simulate the finished job in four colours. (Source: Marketing Week)
GAF Get a friend. Similar to member get member.
Gains chart Results of a multi-variant regression usually arranged in percentiles and quartiles etc.
Galley Formerly a long shallow tray in which type was kept. Now a proof in which columns of copy are returned from the typesetter for proof reading, prior to being arranged into pages.
Galley proof As ‘Galley’.
Gang printing Running more than one job on the same sheet at the same time.
Gap analysis The study of the difference between the position an organisation holds currently, and where it would like to be. Also refers to gaps in a specific market.
Gatefold A fold that folds in towards the centre which when, opened provide a double-gate effect.
Gateway In networking, a combination of hardware and software that links two different types of networks. Gateways between email systems, for example, allow users on different email systems to exchange messages. (Source: Marketing Week)
GCS See Grand Central Station.
Geek A person who is proficient in one or more technical areas, especially in hands-on utilization of technology. At its most extreme geek implies a total lack of interest, ability, and even awareness of all aspects of life unrelated to technology. (Source: Marketing Week )
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system’s global system for mobile communications (GSM).
Generic brand A generic brand is when all products, regardless of manufacturer are known by a brand name. eg Hoover. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Generic product A product which has no element of advertising incorporated in its packaging, i.e. it is sold with no brand name, but instead merely under the name of whatever the good is, e.g. tomatoes. Also known as a commodity product.
Generic search phrase A simple keyphrase without any qualifiers such as ‘car insurance’.
Geo code Symbols used to identify geographical areas, e.g. postcodes.
Geo targeting The process of only showing adverts to people on a website and in search engines based on their physical location. This could be done using advanced technology that knows where a computer is located or by using the content of website to determine what a person is looking for, e.g. someone searching for a restaurant in Islington, London. (Source:
Geographic Method of segmenting a list according to geographic criteria, e.g. town, country and TV area.
Gibraltar Microsoft’s original name for its web server, now called the internet Information Server.
Gigabyte 1,000 megabytes; that is 1,000,000,000 bytes.
Gigalapse A massive denial of customer access to the internet due to demand for services exceeding capacity. See xlapse. (Source:
GIGO Acronym for Garbage In, Garbage Out. Usually said in response to users who complain that a program didn’t do the right thing when given imperfect input or otherwise mistreated in some way.
Gimmick A device to create interest and provide interaction to a marketing promotion.
Gimmick stamps Adhesive-backed stamps for the respondent to apply to forms or envelopes to increase involvement in a mailer’s offer.
Give-away A low-cost free gift given to a prospect or customer without any obligation.
Glassine A vegetable-based transparent paper, not as clear as cellophane or PVC but suitable to cover window apertures in envelopes.
Glitch A sudden interruption in electric services, specifically called a power glitch and is sometimes recoverable, but usually of grave concern because it usually crashes all the computers.
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) The standard for digital cellular phone service set by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and used in Europe, Japan, Australia, and most countries outside the Americas. (Source: OR One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user’s subscription information and phone book.
GlobeSpan A digital and analogue transceiver chip set and technology from AT&T Paradyne that adds 6Mbps of bandwidth for asymmetrical digital subscriber line (ADSL) and high-bit rate digital subscriber line (HDSL) applications to a standard phone line for distances up to 18,000 feet. At a cost to a telco of $500 to $1,500 per line, GlobeSpan is intended to support simultaneous delivery of video, voice, and high speed data. (Source: Marketing Week)
Gloss art Shiny, hard coated paper. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
GMT See Greenwich Mean Time.
GND See Goods Not Delivered.
GNO See Goods Not Ordered.
Gone aways Term used by the post office to indicate that the person at the address to which a mailshot was directed is no longer residing there. The post office normally returns all gone aways if a return address of the mailing company or principal is printed on the envelope.
Google Still the world’s most popular search engine in 2013. A googol is also a mathematical expression, representing the number ten to the power of one hundred (i.e. 1 followed by a hundred 0s).
Google dance Describes the effect of changes to the Google ranking algorithm, resulting in changes to the position in searching listings. (Source:
Google Plus A multilingual social networking and identity service owned and operated by Google Inc. Launched on June 28, 2011, by December 2012, the network had acquired 500 million registered users, of whom 235 million are active on a monthly basis. A brand’s Google Plus presence has a positive impact on listing position in Google’s search results.
Gopher A type of Internet service floated around 1991 and obsolesced around 1995 by the World Wide Web. Gopher presents a menuing interface to a tree graph of links; the links can be to documents, runnable programmes, or other gopher menus arbitrarily far across the net. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
GPRS See General Packet Radio Service. See General Packet Radio Service.
Grain (paper) The lie of paper fibres. Papermaking is carried out in liquids. The grain is determined by the direction of the liquid flow. The long fibres should lie parallel to the long edge (Source:
Grain (photographic) Pigmentation showing on a print due to degree of enlargement or development of original negative.
Grammage (gsm) Weight of paper expressed as grams per square metre.
Grant A machine used by artists and typographers to enlarge or reduce images for tracing (Source: Marketing Week)
Grant-making charity A charity whose principal role is to raise money and redistribute it as grants to other charities.
Graphic design Design that is a two-dimensional process, e.g. illustration, typography, photography and print.
Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) One of the two standard formats used for image files on the internet. The other standard format is JPEG. GIF format is well suited to diagrams and human created pictures and diagrams. It is also possible to do simple animations.
Graphic terminal A VDU screen able to display both line and tone. (Source:
Graphical User Interface (GUI) The user’s visual interface to their computer. Made famous by Apple Computer’s design of the desktop, later mirrored by Microsoft’s windows interface. The most famous development has been web browser.
Gravity feed Feeding a machine using gravity instead of some mechanical means. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Gravure A type of printing technique. The surface to be printed is etched below the nonprinting areas of a printing plate. Also photogravure.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich, England, used as the basis for calculating standard time throughout the world. (See also BST)
Grep To rapidly scan a file or set of files looking for a particular string or pattern (when browsing through a large set of files, one may speak of ‘grepping around’).
Grey scale Strip of grey tones from white to black, used to measure tonal range (Source:
Grid The (hidden) guidelines for a piece of print, to govern page size, margins, column widths and gutters etc.
Grip The area at the front edge of a sheet which must be left unprinted to allow the grippers to feed the sheet into the machine.
Grockle Dust or dirt on a proof which may be the result of contamination on film or simply on the proof.
Gross income The total income, before deductions have been accounted for. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Gross margin Net sales minus the cost of goods sold. (Also called gross profit.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Gross ratings point Also known as Target Ratings Points (TRPs), these are the sum of ratings achieved by a specific media vehicle or schedule. For example, if a newspaper produces a 1 x rating of 50, then three ads in the same newspaper provides 150 GRPs. Thus GRPs = reach x frequency.
Group discussion A research technique where a researcher leads a discussion with a group of consumers about their habits, attitudes and opinions concerning a product.
Groupware Groupware is software that helps users work co-operatively by sharing information. Emails and files can be organised into topics so that the whole group can participate in conversations about the project.
Grovel To examine minutely or in complete detail. “The compiler grovels over the entire source program before beginning to translate it”. “I grovelled all the documentation, but I still couldn’t find the command I wanted.” (Source:
Growth stage The stage in a product life cycle where sales and profits increase, prior to the peak and decline. (Source:
GRP See Gross Ratings Point(s), otherwise known as Target Ratings Points (TRP).
GSM See Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM, gsm Grams per square metre; a unit of paper weight.
Guarantee A warranty made by a seller to a buyer to refund or replace goods that do not meet their satisfaction.
Guardbook A book that contains copies of all advertisements published for a client with relevant data, e.g. response rates.
Guideline Line on artwork which indicates the area to be printed.
Guideprint Print indicating the printing area of a picture.
Guillotine A machine which cuts paper by means of a sharp blade descending onto a flat surface.
Gummed paper Paper coated with adhesive on one side.
Gumming The application of adhesive to paper.
Gun To forcibly terminate a program or job (computer, not career). “Some idiot left a background process soaking up half the cycles, so I gunned it.”
Gutter A margin in a book or on a sheet used for binding. In newspapers refers to the vertical column(s) adjacent to the centre fold.
Hacker An unauthorised individual who intrudes and tries to gain access to information on a computer system. (Source: Marketing Week)
Hairball A large batch of messages that a store-and-forward network is failing to forward when it should. Often used in the phrase “Fido coughed up a hairball today”, meaning that the stuck messages have just come unstuck, producing a flood of mail where there had previously been drought. Any large amount of garbage coming out suddenly. “Sendmail is coughing up a hairball, so expect some slow access to the Internet”. (Source:
Hairline A very fine line or space in typeset matter. (Source:
Half tone Dots of varying sizes create the illusion of continuous tone, produced by screening during reproduction stage.
Halftone – ½ tone An illustration made up of different tones, e.g. photograph or air brush drawing.
Halo effect The role of one media channel on influencing sale or uplift in brand metrics. Commonly applied to online display advertising, where exposure to display ads may increase clickthrough rates when the consumer is later exposed to a brand through other media, for example sponsored links or affiliate ads. It may also increase conversion rates on a destination site through higher confidence in the brand or familiarity with the offer.
Handling house A company which checks, packs and mails premiums.
Hang To wait for an event that will never occur. “The system is hanging because it can’t read from the crashed drive”. Or to wait for some event to occur; to hang around until something happens. “The program displays a menu and then hangs until you
type a character”. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Hard bounce Refers to an email message that has been returned as permanently undeliverable, meaning either the domain is invalid, the user does not exist, or the email had some errors that made it un-mailable.
Hard copy A physical document, usually text on paper. While additions to The Electronic Commerce Dictionary appear as soft copy in this web page the original book is available only in hard copy. (Return to home page for more book information.)
Hard disk A high-capacity storage device that computers use for programs and data, measured in gigabytes (Gb). Information held on hard discs is safe when the power is withdrawn.
Hard sell An aggressive approach to selling, which asks for an immediate response to a solicitation. (Source: Computer Active)
Hard-bound A hard outside covering to a book or other literature.
Hardware A computer term applied to equipment, rather than computer programs.
Harvest An architecture for searching for data on the Internet developed at the University of Colorado. The architecture combines information “gatherers” located on servers and information “brokers” which communicate with gatherers and other brokers in their search for information. Harvest uses far less network bandwidth and index space than other search architectures and can work with a variety of search engines and search protocols. See metadata. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
HDSL See High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line.
HDTV See High Definition Television.
Head Top or top margin of a page (Source:
Head end Technical control and distribution centre of a (digital TV) cable network.
Head-to-head A term given to testing when a direct comparison is to be made between two marketing options.
Header Control information inserted in front of data when the data is encapsulated for network transmission. See IP Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload. (See IPv6 in the hard copy dictionary.)
Header record A header record is a file containing information which pertains to a particular group of records.
Heading A line of type which is displayed at the head, before a piece of text. Maybe simply a title.
Headline As above. Usually more than simply a title.
Heandend A central distribution point in a cable television network that typically serves tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of homes. In a traditional cable TV network all communication was one way TV video and sound carried from the head end to the subscriber residences. Cable networks have been upgraded to carry data and voice as well as video, and to carry some traffic in both directions. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Heat sealing Process of sealing poly bags through heating sufficient to melt and fix together as cools. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Heat set Part of the web-offset printing process when a heated chamber is used to dry the ink on non-absorbent papers.
Heat transfer addressing A process by which a name and address are applied to an envelope.
Helper A program used by a WWW browser to process files that the browser itself cannot, for example a sound file, JPEG image, MPEG movie, or a compressed file. Also known as a viewer.
Helper Application An application that is used to process a file format that the Browser cannot handle. Typically used for multimedia files and animations. Since there is an overhead in calling helper applications, plugs-ins are used for the most commonly used formats. Plug-ins fulfil the same function as helper applications but they are in effect made part of the browser itself. (Source:
Heuristic A way to measure a user’s unique identity, using deduction or inference based on a rule of algorithm which is valid for that server. Also referred to as an inference. (Source:
HFC See Hybrid Fiber/Coax.
Hierarchy of effects 20th Century advertising model in which communications were planned to move consumers progressively along the AIDA pathway. The validity of the model has been brought into question by 21st century research which reveals the model is not an accurate reflection of typical consumer behaviour. However, despite this, the hierarchy of effects model continues to be widely referenced and used as a useful communication planning tool.
High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) A technology that supports high speed transmission of data over copper wires. See Digital Subscriber Line. (Source:
High Definition Television (HDTV) A high quality digital TV, generally referring to high resolution LCD or plasma units.
History file Historical information allocated to specific customer or other computer records, such as purchasing patterns etc. (Source:
Hit A highly contentious term, that rarely indicates the number of visitors to a website.Hits are the individual request a Web server answers in order to render a single Web page completely. So the hits for one page will include the page document itself, a hit for each of the images the page contains, and a hit for every other media component embedded in the page (such a as sound effect). For example, in order for a Web browser to display a page containing two images, the server will have at least three hits (one for the HTML page and two hits for the images). In other words, if a page contains many images, it will have a high hit count.. So from the marketing point of view, the bottom line is that the hits are misleading – they are never synonymous with the numbers of site visitors or page-views. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
Hollow PC See Internet appliance. (Source:
Home automation The ability of products to communicate with each other over some medium within the home such as twisted pair, coaxial cable, radio frequency, infrared, spread spectrum, or powerline. Control applications include lighting, air conditioning, eating, overall energy management, security, watering, and entertainment. The three leading protocols for home automation are LonWorks, CEBus, and Smart House. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Home page The main page of a website. Typically, the home page serves as an index or table of contents to other documents stored at the site. (Source:
Homepage The main page of a website. Typically, the home page serves as an index or table of contents to other documents stored at the site. (Source:
Homeworkers Those who undertake work at home, usually addressing or enclosing mailings. (Source: Marketing Week)
Horizontal market journals Pertains to executives of similar positions across a broad spread of different industries.
Host A computer on a network. The term is commonly used to refer to computers that offer services to other computers such as running a web service or a database.
Hosted application Standard software managed externally on the supplier’s server.
Hot Java A World Wide Web browser capable of interpreting interactive applications, or “applets” programmed in Java (which see). (Source:
Hot line A telephone service that is a direct and effective order or enquiry service. Can also be used to describe a group of particularly loyal customers that may need special attention.
Hot list The most recent names on a mail order buyer or enquirer list.
Hot spotting The ability to add hyperlinks to objects in a video that enable viewers to tag a product or service. Hot spotting can be used as a direct response mechanic in internet video. (Source:
Hotlink A link between two applications such that changes in one affect the other. For example, some desktop publishing systems let you establish hot links between documents and databases or spreadsheets. When data in the spreadsheet changes, the corresponding charts and graphs in the document change accordingly. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
House advertisement An advertisement included in a publication, often to fill empty space, which advertises the publication itself or other services offered by the publisher. (Source:
House list A mailer’s own list of people who are either former or current customers or prospects, members, etc.
House mailing A mailing to your own house list.
House style Design or copy which is a distinctive production of the company who produced it.
House-to-house The delivery of unaddressed promotional literature to households.
HTML See Hypertext Mark-up Language.
HTML5 A W3C specification that defines the fifth major revision of the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). One of the major changes in HTML5 is in respect to how HTML addresses web applications. Other new features in HTML5 include specific functions for embedding graphics, audio, video, and interactive documents. New elements also allow you to define sections of your Web page using new tags such as < article > which defines an article, < nav > which defines navigation links, < source > which defines media resources, and many others. For example, the navigation section of your page would be enclosed in the < nav > tags. ( Source:
HTTP See Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
Hybrid Fiber/Coax (HFC) Upgraded cable TV facilities which use fiber optic cable in the backbone and coaxial cable to connect to cable subscriber homes and businesses. (Source:
Hybrid model A combination of two or more online marketing payment models. (Source: IAB)
Hybrid pricing Pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. (Source:
Hyperlink An element in an electronic document that links to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document. Typically, you click on the hyperlink to follow the link. Hyperlinks are the most essential ingredient of all hypertext systems, including the World Wide Web. (Source:
Hyperspace A 3-dimensional space that appears on your display screen. (Source: Computer Active)
Hypertext Database system invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s, in which objects (text, pictures, music, programs, and so on) can be creatively linked to each other. When you select an object, you can see all the other objects that are linked to it. Today, a fundamental feature of web and email communications.
Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) The language used to create web pages. It consists of a set of tags which tell the browser how to interpret and display the page content to viewers.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The underlying protocol used by the world wide web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.
i-ad An interactive advertisement.
I-Seek-You (ICQ) An easy-to-use online instant messaging program developed by Mirabilis LTD. Pronounced as separate letters, so that it sounds like “I-Seek-You,” ICQ is similar to America OnLine’s popular Buddy List and Instant Messenger programs. It is used as a conferencing tool by individuals on the Net to hat, email, perform file transfers, play computer games, and more. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
IA See Interactive Advertising and Information Architecture.
IAP See Internet Access Providers.
IBEX See International Business Exchange.
Ice Coined by Usenetter Tom Maddox, popularised by William Gibson’s cyberpunk SF novels: a contrived acronym for `Intrusion Countermeasure Electronics’ Security software (in Gibson’s novels), software that responds to intrusion by attempting to immobilize. (Source:
Icon A small picture displayed on-screen to identify an application or file. To open the application or file you simply click on the icon using the mouse. (Source:,
ICQ See I-Seek-You.
iCRM Intelligent or internet-based CRM. Like eCRM, a variant on customer relationship management. See CRM.
ID A string of characters that identifies you, typically your name or initials, used when you are logging on to a computer system (Source: Computer Active)
Idea bank A pool of ideas, collected on an on-going basis for use in the future, eg Copy ideas, premiums and pricings. (Source:
IDL See Interface Definition Language.
iDTV Interactive Digital Television. See Interactive Television.
idTV See Integrated Digital Television.
IIOP See Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.
IKP See Internet Keyed Payment Protocols.
ILEC See Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier.
Illustrated letter A letter that contains illustrations or photographs, as well as copy. Also known as cabbage letter.
Image ad An image on a mobile internet site with an active link that can be clicked on by the subscriber. Once clicked the user is redirected to a new page, another mobile internet site or other destination where an offer resides. (Source:
Imbeds Variable data inserted into fixed text. (Source:
IMC See Integrated Marketing Communications.
IMC effectiveness In the context of integrated marketing, it is possible to have an effective plan and implement it inefficiently. For example making an expensive choice of media to achieve your plan.
IMC efficiency In the context of integrated marketing; it is possible to be very efficient but not be very effective. You might, for example, make an excellent media mix choice but send out weak communications.
Imitation art Paper mixed with china clay and highly finished to give an ‘art paper’ appearance.
Immediate Response EDI The use of EDI in exchanging messages among thousands of users to a central “online” application (eg, dealers sending orders to a supplier and receiving a confirmation while their customer waits). The exchange is passed through directly between parties, not mailboxed. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Impact glue A type of glue that is used in the manufacture of envelopes. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Impact printer Printing machine using a printing element hammered onto the paper through a ribbon, in a similar manner to a typewriter.
Impacts One TV impact is one person’s viewing of one commercial. Total monthly impacts are used to assess the performance of television stations in reaching target audiences.
Imperial A British standard of measurement for paper 22′ x 30′.
Imposition The way in which a printer lays out the pages of a job so that when folded and trimmed they fall into the correct sequence of pages.
Impression In traditional print, refers to the pressure of plates in contact with either the blanket or paper at the moment of printing; also the image left after printing has taken place. Online, refers to the delivery (or serving) of a single web page or ad (usually a banner) to a single viewer one time.
Impressions The metric used to measure views of a webpage and its elements- including the advertising embedded within it. Ad impressions is the basis on which most online advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions (CPM). (Source:
Impulse buying Unpredicted/non-considered purchasing.
Impulse response In interactive television, for example, refers to a simple and instant response on an i-ad which does not require a DAL.
IMS See Information Management System.
In pro Origination material which is all ‘in proportion’, one to the other, according to the finished work. (Not in pro describes origination material requiring differing degrees of reduction or enlargement according to the finished work.)
In-house To carry out business processes within a company rather than employing an outside supplier.
In-line finishing Products that are folded and trimmed on press.
In-line frame See iFrame.
In-line image On a web page, an image that appears in the midst of text.
In-unit click A measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. (Source:
Inactive buyer A person who has bought from a company, but not within a recent specified period.
Inactive Google ads in PPC Ads are not displayed within the Google Adwords programme in response to a search within the search engines since they don’t meet the Quality-Based Minimum bid criteria. However, they may still appear on the content network for relevant sites. Ads are marked as ‘Inactive for Search for keywords within Adwords campaign management.
Inbound links Aka backlinks. Links into a web page from other pages or websites (i.e. links that are directed towards your website).
Incentive A promotional offer such as a free gift, competition etc. Aimed at encouraging potential customers to purchase.
Incidental promotion A website URL is promoted in offline communications, but the proposition (i.e. IVP) isn’t emphasised.
Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC) The local telephone company, providing local service and connections to the Public Switched Telephone Network to residences and businesses in its area.
Indent To write or set the first line of copy/paragraph in from the margin.
Independent Software Vendor (ISV) Independent Software Vendor.
Independent Television Commission (ITC) Statutory body controlling commercial broadcasting in the UK from January 1990 until December 2003 when its duties were assumed by Ofcom, the Office of Communications.
Index An alphabetical list of topics covered in a book, with their appropriate page references. A method of comparing data without revealing actual values. In commercial broadcasting terms, measures the efficiency of a particular time period/programme/commercial break in reaching a certain sub-category audience.
Index test Testing seasonality of different offers.
Individual subscriber Applies to consumer marketing using email or SMS text messages: a residential subscriber, a sole trader or an unincorporated partnership in England, Wales and N. Ireland.
Inductive research Inductive research means that conclusions are drawn by identifying repeated patterns of behaviour.
Industrial marketing The marketing of industrial goods to industrial users. Also known as business-tobusiness.
Infection rate The growth rate of a viral campaign is known as its infection rate. This is determined by its appeal and the ease at which it can be forwarded and spread.
Inferno A crash project at AT&T Bell labs to develop a language to rival Java (which see). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Infill This normally relates to the adding of a name and address, possibly with date and salutation, to a preprinted letter to give it the effect of personalisation.
Information Architecture (IA) The combination of organisation, labelling, and navigation schemes comprising an information system.
Information Management System (IMS) Refers to a database system, derived from IBM.
Information processing The process, usually computer-aided, of translating raw data into usable information. (Source:
Information retrieval The process of recovering specific information from stored data.
Information Systems (IS) For many companies, IS is the name of the department responsible for computers, networking and data management. Other companies refer to the department as IT (Information Technology) and MIS (Management Information Services). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Infosec Information Security. The way of preserving all elements of an information set. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Inhouse To carry out business processes within a company rather than employing an outside supplier.
Ink jet A type of printing process. Tiny ink droplets are sprayed from a jet. This process is of a lower quality than laser printing, but can be carried out at high speed.
Ink piling A build-up of ink on a printing blanket.
Inline frame See iFrame.
Inline Keying A method of encryption and authentication that avoids set-up overhead by inserting an extra header in every protected packet. See SKIP. In order to minimize the per-packet overhead, an inline keying header should be used only until the desired security association is established, at which point the peers will fall back to pure ESP. (Source:
Inner An envelope provided within a mailing piece. Normally a reply envelope, often pre-addressed and stamped. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Input The term to describe data going onto a computer.
Inquiries Response to direct marketing solicitations offering further information. US spelling of enquiries.
Insert Loose or bound-in promotion within a magazine, newspaper, or other publication. To insert items into a mail pack.
Insertion order A printed order to run an advertisement campaign. It defines the campaign name, the web site receiving the order and the planner or buyer giving the order, the individual advertisements to be run (or who will provide them), the sizes of the advertisements, the campaign beginning and end dates, the CPM, the total cost, discounts to be applied, and reporting requirements and possible penalties or stipulations relative to the failure to deliver the impressions.
Inset As insert, usually reserved for bound-in or affixed inserts.
Insetting Placing and fixing one section inside another.
Instalment buyer A person who pays for goods or services in two or more periodic payments.
Instant messaging A web-based service that enables users to see whether another individual is currently online and to send that user a short message immediately.
Instant messaging Sending messages and chatting with friends or colleagues in real-time when both are online. (Source:
Institutional advertising Another term for corporate advertising; promotes a company rather than any of its products or services specifically.
Integrated digital television (idTV) A television set with inbuilt capability to receive digital broadcasts.
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) The co-ordination of communications to deliver a clear, consistent message, using a media neutral approach.
Integrated POS terminal A terminal at the point-of-sale, connected to a retailer’s back office computer, that executes both point-of-sale functions and EFT-POS functions. It usually integrates an electronic cash register with a card reader and a PIN keypad.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) An international communications standard for high-speed dial-up connections to send voice, video, and data the internet over normal and digital phone lines. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second). Most ISDN lines offered by telephone companies give you two lines at once, called B channels. You can use one line for voice and the other for data, or you can use both lines for data to give you data rates of 128 Kbps, three times the data rate provided by today’s fastest modems. (Source:
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Protects the intangible property (intellectual property or IP) created by corporations or individuals that is not protected under copyright, trade secret and patent laws.
Intelligent Agent Programs, used extensively on the Web, that perform tasks such as retrieving and delivering information and automating repetitive tasks. More than 50 companies are currently developing intelligent agent software or services, including Firefly and WiseWire. (Source:
Intelpost A Royal Mail service that is created around a world-wide facsimile transmission network. (Source:
Inter-list duplicate Duplication of a name and address record on two or more mailing lists that have been rented for the same mailing (i.e. other than a house-list).
Inter-neg A printing term used for an intermediate negative of the image produced prior to plate making. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Interactive Accepting input from a human. Interactive computer systems are programs that allow users to enter data or commands. Most popular programs, such as word processors and spreadsheet applications, are interactive. Where an information receiver can communicate directly with the information supplier. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Interactive advertising (IA) All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, email, keyword searches, classified ads and referrals. In the context of digital TV, refers to advertisements with an overlay prompting the viewer to press the red button on their remote control for more information, a competition, sample etc.
Interactive marketing All types of advertising through the web, wireless and interactive television. Interactive advertising can include banners, site sponsorships, email ads, PPC search engine ads and classified ads. A broader definition is ‘direct marketing using electronic (digital) media’.
Interactive multimedia An application involving substantial user input or control and presenting at least two of the following: text, graphics, sound, image, video, and animation. Applications can be in the areas of education, entertainment, information and publishing.
Interactive Television (iTV) A catch-all word used to describe digital TV viewers’ ability to interact with the TV via a ‘return path’. Popular for services such as home banking, home shopping and advertiser information.
Interactive Voice Response/Recognition (IVR) A digital system to automatically manage incoming calls and convert data received for input into a database.
Intercast A protocol created by Intel in 1996 for broadcasting information, such as Web pages and programs, along with television signals to a PC. With Intercast, a user can watch television on one portion of a PC monitor while receiving relevant information often about the broadcast from the Web on another. To browse the Web for information not being broadcast or not stored on the PC, however, the user must have Internet access through an Internet Service Provider ; Intercast transmits in only one direction. (Source:
Interconnect fees The interconnect fee is the fee levied by the network operators to each other for helping deliver another network’s message. It typically costs slightly more for MMS than for SMS.
Interexchange Carrier (IXC) An international company carrying long distance telephone business. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Interface The point at which parts of a computer link with each other (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Interface Definition Language (IDL) The CORBA standard language for defining an object’s interface. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Interleaves Sheets of paper put between wet printed sheets, to ensure true setting. Also different types of paper put in between the text pages of a book. (Source:
Intermercial See interstitial.
Internal affiliate marketing programme A programme run by a merchant business to develop and manage the links and payments for the affiliates that link directly to it.
Internal data Data owned and used within a company, such as dministrations and sales data.
Internal list The advertiser’s own list of current or past customers or prospect. See also house list.
International Business Exchange (IBEX) An online service that allows businesses to identify suppliers, make and receive bids, negotiate contracts, and arrange the delivery of goods and services world-wide. A company may post its requirements and receive bids without revealing its identity. IBEX is a joint effort of AT&T, Dun & Bradstreet, General Electric, and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. It is scheduled for availability in 1996. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Internesia The internet generation’s amnesia, or the inability to remember which website, email or other digital communication that specific information came from! In short, information overload.
Internet Global communications network that carries communications protocols including the world wide web, email and newsgroups.
Internet Access Providers (IAP) See Internet Service Providers.
Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB) Organisation whose aim is to create standards for advertising on the internet.
Internet appliance A computer designed to support client access to the Web (i.e. browsing) but without support for any popular PC operating systems or applications. Targeted to be substantially less expensive than a PC, some Internet appliances will be able to use either a PC monitor or a TV for display. (Source:
Internet café A café, where apart from eating and drinking, the customers can pay for access to a computer linked to the internet. Very useful for picking up communications such as Hotmail when travelling.
Internet Explorer The web browser created by Microsoft.
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) A protocol which will be mandatory for all CORBA 2.0 compliant platforms. The initial phase of the project is to build an infrastructure consisting of: an IIOP to HTTP gateway which allows CORBA clients to access WWW resources; an HTTP to IIOP gateway to let WWW clients access CORBA resources; a web server which makes resources available by both IIOP and HTTP; web browsers which can use IIOP as their native protocol. (Source:
Internet Keyed Payment Protocols (IKP) A series of secure payment methods for web transactions including credit cards and cheques. They do not require a specific browser. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Internet marketing Narrower than e-marketing and digital marketing as it refers solely to using internet technologies (e.g. web, email) for marketing objectives. Thus some wireless technologies and interactive TV are, for example, excluded.
Internet Protocol address (IP address) Unique number which is used to represent every single computer in a network, allowing information to be sent from one to another. All computers on the internet have either a permanently allocated unique IP address or a temporary IP address allocated each time the computer starts up. The unique numeric code is expressed as four groups of numbers separated by dots.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) A worldwide “party line” network that allows one to converse with others in real time. IRC is structured as a network of Internet servers, each of which accepts connections from client programs, one per user. The IRC community and the USENET and MUD communities overlap to some extent, including both hackers and regular folks who have discovered the wonders of computer networks. Some USENET jargon has been adopted on IRC, as have some conventions such as emoticons. There is also a vigorous native jargon, represented in this lexicon by entries marked `IRC’. (Source:
Internet Security Association & Key Management Protocol (ISP) A company that provides access to the internet. Before you can connect to the internet you must first establish an account with an Internet Service Provider.
Internet Tax Freedom Act of 1998 A law passed by the U.S. Congress that placed a three-year moratorium on new taxes on internet access fees and prohibited multiple and discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. The internet appears likely to drive a major simplification of the sales tax laws which vary greatly between different states and local governments across the country. The act also set up the Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce. (Source:
Internet wizard A guide within a program or website that helps with the use of that program or the navigation of the website.
Interruptive formats Online advertising formats that appear on users’ screens on top of web content (and sometimes before web page appears) and range from static, one-page splash screens to full-motion animated advertisements. (Source: IAB)
Interstitial A web page not requested by a user, usually containing an advertisement, which appears on the user’s screen, often in an automatically opened new browser, when the user has clicked on a link to move from one web page to another. Also known as splash pages and transition ads.
Intra-list duplicate A name and address that is repeated more than once WITHIN a list rather than BETWEEN different lists. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organisation, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organisation’s members, employees, or others with authorisation. An intranet’s website looks and acts just like any other website.
Inverse printing Printing upside down.
Invertising Used variously to mean ‘advertising in reverse’ (consumers pulling information from the internet; ads they go out of their way to watch) or ‘internal advertising’ (communicating brand values and marketing objectives to the rest of the organisation).
Invitation to Tender (ITT) The formal document that sets out what you are asking potential suppliers for and how they should set about making their bid for your project (including protocols, timelines, budgets and your detailed requirements specification).
IP address See Internet Protocol address.
IP Number Internet Protocol Number. A number that is used to uniquely identify every computer on the Internet. It takes the following form: Whenever you type in a web address, the equivalent IP address is looked up in a directory and it is the IP address that is used to locate the relevant computer. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
IP Service The carrying, for a fee, of data traffic using the Internet protocol. This is the essential service provided by Internet Service Providers and Network Service Providers. (See Internet Protocol and Internet Service Providers in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source:
IP Telephony Internet Provider Telephony is a technology for voice, data, and video transfer across IP-based LANs and WANs and across the Internet. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
IP-SEC An IETF standard for encrypted sessions between corporate firewalls. DES with a 56-bit key is the mandatory encryption method. S/WAN (which see) is an industry standard implementation of IP-SEC. (See IETF, encryption, firewall, and DES in the hardcopy dictionary.) (Source:
IPA Institute of Practitioners in Advertising is the trade body representing advertising agencies in the UK.
IPR See Intellectual Property Rights.
IPTV See Internet Protocol Television.
IRC See Internet Relay Chat.
ISAKMP See Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol.
ISAPI Microsoft’s proprietary API for interfacing between the company’s Internet Information Server (Web server) and back-end services such as databases. ISAPI provides higher performance than the industry standard Common Gateway Interface (which see in the hard copy dictionary). (Source: Computer Active)
ISBN International Standard Book Number.
ISDN See Integrated Services Digital Network.
ISO Greek ‘isos’ (equal). The International Org. for Standardization ( Network of 146 national standards institutes (UK represented by Devises international standards for efficiency in organisations and regularises sizes
ISO Latin-1 An ISO code using 8 bits to specify 256 different characters. The first 128 correspond to the US-ASCII character set. The other 128 include control characters and characters common in European languages.
ISO sizes Internationally recognised range of paper size names. ‘A’ sizes relate to printed work, ‘B’ sizes to chart work and ‘C’ sizes to envelopes. In general ‘a’ sizes are for printed work, ‘b’ sizes for chart work and ‘c’ sizes for envelopes.
ISP See Internet Service Provider.
Issue date/cover date The official date for the sale of a magazine or other publication, which can differ from the date when it is available on sale in retail outlets.
ISV An independent software vendor.
Italic Letters that slope forward, as distinct from roman (upright).
ITC See Independent Television Commission.
ITT See Invitation To Tender.
iTV See Interactive Television.
Ivoryboard Fine board that is manufactured by laminating two high-quality sheets together.
IVR See Interactive Voice Response/Recognition.
IXC See Interexchange Carrier.
Jack in To log on to a machine or connect to a network or BBS, esp. for purposes of entering a virtual reality simulation such as a MUD or IRC (leaving is “jacking out”). This term derives from cyberpunk SF, in which it was used for the act of plugging an electrode set into neural sockets in order to interface the brain directly to a virtual reality. It is primarily used by MUD and IRC fans and ounger hackers on BBS systems. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Jargonaut One who studies jargon; a person who creates or uses Internet jargon.
Java Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java is a programming language that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called “Applets”), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. Java is a simple, robust, object-oriented, platform-independent multi-threaded, dynamic general-purpose programming environment. It is best for creating applets and applications for the Internet, intranets
Java Telephony API (JTAPI) A set of application programming interfaces that enables operation between telephone switching equipment and a computer. It can run on a wide variety of processors. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
JavaBeans A software component model associated with the Java programming language. A JavaBean component is an object which can be used repeatedly by visually manipulating it into larger solutions. JavaBeans can range from low-level components, such as a scroll bar, to complete products like Corel’s Office for Java. (Source:
JavaScript A scripting language developed by Netscape to enable web authors to design interactive sites. Although it shares many of the features and structures of the full Java language, it was developed independently. JavaScript can interact with HTML source code.
Jigsaw planning Marketing communications planning that is undertaken in fragmented, if convenient and simple silos that together form a complete campaign picture. (Opp: ‘Integrated Marketing Communications’, IMC)
Jobbing A printing term describing general business printing not specifically promotional, advertising etc. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Jock 1. A programmer who is characterized by large and somewhat brute-force programs. See brute force. 2. When modified by another noun, describes a specialist in some particular computing area. The compounds `compiler jock’ and `systems jock’ seem to be the best-established examples. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Johnson box A phrase, sentence or short passage, highlighted by being enclosed in a box, often formed of asterisks or keylines, at the head of a piece of copy or letter. (Source:
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) One of the two standard formats used for images on the web. The other is GIF. The JPEG format is well suited for photographic images.
JTAPI See Java Telephony API
Jumbo envelope An envelope 324 mm x 229 mm (more commonly known as a C4 envelope). (Source:
Jump page ad Microsite which is reached via clickthrough from button or banner ad. (Source:
Junk mail A term, offensive to direct mailers, used by the media which means unsolicited and appreciated mail. See also Spam email.
Justification The alignment of words to give ‘straight’ left and right margins.
Justify Typesetting aligned to margins as justified left and right.
Kbps Kilobits per second – a measure of modem speed. A kilobit is 1,000 bits of computer data.
KCRM An abbreviation for knowledge-enabled CRM, which is the marriage of knowledge management and CRM disciplines to get closer to the customer. (Source: Angus Jenkinson)
Kerning The inter-character spacing of a specific pair of characters, e.g. AW to avoid excessive spacing.
Key (code) A method of putting numeric or alpha references onto a piece of material to identify it.
Key library A set of encrypted keys that belong to one person or that can be shared by a defined group of people. Access to a key library requires a separate key. (See key and key management in the hard copy dictionary.)
Key lines Lines on artwork to define areas of specific type/colour printing areas. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Key number A code put on a reply device enabling response to be monitored by source.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) The “measures that matter most”. In marketing these refer to the key metrics that indicate successful marketing outcomes, e.g. cost per click, cost per opportunity, cost per sale, average order value, return on investment (ROI) and lifetime value.
Key recovery While sometimes simply the process by which a key is retrieved from key escrow(which see in the hard copy dictionary) key recovery also refers to asubstitute for thefailed Clipper chip/Capstone initiative (which see in the hard copydictionary). In thisscheme a copy of the key, in a separately encrypted key recovery field,is always sentalong with the data which it encrypts. A predetermined private sector”Key RecoverCenter” can decrypt the key recovery field when requested by anauthorized party (ega government agency with a court order). A new cryptography exportpolicy whichtook effect in late 1996 allows companies in the United States to exportcryptographic algorithms using up to 56 bit keys if they agree to add amethod forkey recovery within their product within the next two years. Also seerecovery keyand TACDFIPSFKMI. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Key-to-disk Punching information via a keyboard entry system directly onto the disk of a computer and not via tape.
Keyboard The array of keys that control a machine, representing data and commands. (Source:
Keyphrase The phrase (one word or more) that users type into a search box to describe the object of their search.
Keyphrase analysis The identification of keyphrases customers are likely to use when searching for products or services.
Keyphrase density The number of times a word or phrase is used on a page or website.
Keyphrase groups or themes Related keyphrases about a particular topic or product.
Keyphrase variants in SEO Different forms of a given keyphrase, i.e. plurals and different word sequence. Careful analysis of these can give better results.
Keystroke One key depression, often used as a measure of an operator’s productivity.
Keyword The word (or words) a user types in when presented with a search box (for examplethe box in front of where it says “Look It Up” near the upper right-handcorner on thehomepage of NetLingo). On a search engine, for example, a keyword is theterm orphrase that you type in to begin an online search. The term keyword alsoappears ina meta tag as part of the HTML code on a Web site. Keywords are theseries of wordswhich follow this tag, and often comprise a long list of terms in orderto help thesearch engines readily identify and better index the Web site. (Source:
Keyword formatting A specification for how a keyword or keyphrase should appear in the search engine? Search engines place more emphasis on keywords that are bold or are incorporated in major headings.
Keyword matching in PPC A paid search technique which gives precise control of which ad you display for the combination of keywords entered by searcher as their searchterm. Keyword matching is controlled through different match types.
Keyword relevance Keyword relevance within Google is a specific concept which describes the match between the keyword triggering the ad and the search term entered. It is an important aspect of quality score.
Keywords in PPC The words that are specified with the search ad network campaign management system for which you want your ads to display. In this report we distinguish these from keyphrases.
Kilobyte A thousand bytes. The purists will tell you that it is actually the binary equivalent, which is 1024! (Source: Computer Active)
Kiosk An electronic device designed to provide the public with information is known as a kiosk. A touch screen may be used by the user to select the information, rather like browsing through a website. They can be used to provide travel information, for example.
KISS Short for keep it simple, stupid. A formula used in both offline and online copywriting.
Knife folder A type of folding machine which uses a blade edge to fold paper.
Knock and drop The delivery of unaddressed, unsolicited mail, usually samples, where contact must first be made with the recipient before leaving them.
Knocking up To align edges of a pile of paper.
Knowledge management The process of managing organisational knowledge to create business value and sustain competitive advantage through the creation, communication and application of knowledge gained from customer interactions.
KPI See Key Performance Indicators.
L2PT Access Concentrator (LAC) A device connected to one or more Public Switched Telephone Network or ISDN lines that supports both the PPP protocol and the L2PT protocol. It may tunnel any protocol carried within PPP and communicate with one or more L2PT Network Servers. (See ISDN and PPP in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
LAC See L2PT Access Concentrator
Lag The amount of time between making an online request or command and receiving a (Source:
Laid A type of writing paper. High quality with line-laid water marks.
Laminate The applying of film, usually by heat welding, to a card or other paper materials to give a durable, cleanable, shiny surface on printed products.
LAN See Local Area Network.
Landing date The date on which the mailer targets the mailing package to reach the consumer.
Landing page The page or view to which a user is directed when they click on an active link embedded in a banner, web page, email or other view. A click through lands the user on a jump page. Sometimes the landing page is one stage upstream from what would ordinarily be considered the homepage. (Source: IAB)
Landscape Description of paper or board with the longest sides as top and bottom of the sheet (opposite of portrait).
Language Computer communication which uses words that translate into machine code.
Language Lawyer A person, usually an experienced or senior software engineer, who is intimately familiar with many or most of the numerous restrictions and features (both useful and esoteric) applicable to one or more computer programming languages. A language lawyer is distinguished by the ability to show you the five sentences scattered through a 200-plus-page manual that together imply the answer to your question “if only you had thought to look there”. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Large format ads Interactive ads (banner) sizes that are larger than 468 x 60 pixels, such as skyscrapers.
Large post An imperial measurement of paper size: 16.5 “ x 21” (419x533mm). (Source:
Laser A shortened word which stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Concentrated light beam of narrow width, used for creating images, engravings, etc.
Laser personalisation A method of computer printing usually incorporating file data in preplanned positions. (A computer attachment to the laser printer supplies personal data about each record.)
Laser printer Machine using lasers to create an image on paper.
Last colour The final colour to be printed in colour work.
Latency 1. The time it takes for a packet to cross a network connection, from sender to receiver. 2. The period of time that a frame is held by a network device before it is forwarded.
Latency time The time delay while advertising loads on a page. (Source: IAB)
Launch The first campaign to promote a new product or service. (Source:
Lay down Impose artwork ready for printing.
Lay edges The two edges of a sheet which are consistently fed first into a press to ensure accurate registration.
Layout Very detailed and specific design of a promotional piece showing positions and look of the item to be produced.
LBS See Location Based Services.
LDAP See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
Lead generation Advertisements inviting enquiries for sales follow-up.
Lead sentence The first sentence in a piece of copy (crucial to gain reader attention).
Lead-in A phrase or sentence that precedes a headline in a direct response advertisement or mailing.
Leader dots Row of dots used to lead the eye across a page, e.g. (…).
Leading Space inserted between lines of type, from ‘lead’, the heavy metal.
Leading edge The edge of a sheet or leaflet/booklet that goes first into the processing or envelope machine.
Leads When a visitor registers, signs up for, or downloads something on an advertiser’s site. A lead might also comprise a visitor filling out a form on an advertiser’s site. (Source:
Leaf A single sheet which makes up two pages.
Leased Line A telephone line connection between two points that is rented for exclusive use by an organisation. The leased line is always active and has the advantage over redialling each time is that you get a consistent quality of line and resulting higher speed of data communication. It is usually cheaper when the line is in use for a large percentage of the time. Cost often relates to the distance between the points and the speed of circuit. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
LEC see Local Exchange Carrier.
Legacy software software written long ago, often in COBOL (Source:
Legal-sized envelope term used in the US, Canada and Australia, for the most common direct mail envelope used in mailings to businesses. (Source:
Legend caption.
Legibility the ease with which text can be read.
Letraset brand name which is commonly used for rub-down transfer lettering and graphics for artwork.
Letter shop n American term to describe a mailing house and more specifically inserting, addressing and computer finishing facility. Tends to relate to mechanical processing although can embrace some degree of hand work if done inhouse.
Letterbomb piece of email containing live data intended to do nefarious things to the recipient’s machine or terminal. It is possible, for example, to send letterbombs that will lock up some specific kinds of terminals when they are viewed, so thoroughly that the user must cycle power (see cycle, sense 3) to unwedge them. Under UNIX, a letterbomb can also try to get part of its contents interpreted as a shell command to the mailer. The results of this could range from silly to tragic. See also Trojan horse; compare nastygram. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Letterhead rinting on a letter which identifies the sender, usually giving a contact address and telephone number. (Source:
Letterhead enquiry A solicited sales enquiry that comes in on a company’s letterheaded paper. Usually a quality lead.
Letterpress Printing from raised surfaces of either metal or plastic, in which ink is transferred to the paper by direct contact with the type or block. Used mainly for specialist printing nowadays, having been largely superseded by offset litho.
Letterset A printing method where the image transfers from a relief plate, first onto a blanket, and then from the blanket onto paper. It is sometimes known as dry offset, offset letterpress and indirect letterpress.
LHE Left-hand edge.
LHS Left-hand side.
Library shot/picture A picture or illustration taken from an existing source, e.g. a photo or picture library.
Lifestyle A person’s way of life, which has a direct influence on the type of products or services they buy or require.
Lifetime value (LTV) The value of a customer’s purchases over time, e.g. five years or until no longer active.
LIFO Last In, First Out. (Stock that is issued as early as possible, regardless of similar stock which is already held.)
Lift letter A second letter within a direct mail from an authoritative individual who endorses the product or service.
Lift memo Like a lift letter, but produced in the style of a memo.
Lightweight directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Defines user access to resources on a network.
lightweight paper aper normally less than 60 gsm in substance. (Source:
LILO Last In, Last Out (Stock issued in rotation according to the date it is received.)
Limited edition Products of which a restricted number are produced or available, to increase their perceived value.
Line marketing term to describe a range of products with particular characteristics.
Line and half-tone In illustration process, in which line and halftone negatives are combined, then printed onto a plate and etched.
Line conversion Conversion of continuous-tone image to line image.
Line drawing Image which has no graduation of tones, i.e. comprising solid black lines or shapes only.
Line printer computer printer that prints a line at a time as opposed to a page printer that can print a full page of text in one go.
Link-building tructured approach to arranging good quality hyperlinks to your website from other external, relevant sites – helping to boost page ranking in search results.
Linkbait aluable content on a site that is naturally attracts links and bookmarks. It is often specifically designed to do this – a process known as linkbaiting.
Linotype brand name of machines which cast lines of metal type. Now virtually obsolete.
Lint from UNIX’s `lint(1)’, named for the bits of fluff it supposedly picks from programs. 1. vt. To examine a program closely for style, language usage, and portability problems, esp. if in C, esp. if via use of automated analysis tools, most esp. if the UNIX utility `lint(1)’ is used. This term used to be restricted to use of `lint(1)’ itself, but (judging by references on USENET) it has become a shorthand for desk check at some non-UNIX shops, even in languages other than C. Also as v. delint. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Linux Pronounced lee-nucks, A freely-distributable implementation of UNIX that runs on a number of hardware platforms, including Intel and Motorola microprocessors. It was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds. Because it’s free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs, Macintoshes and Amigas, Linux has become extremely popular over the last couple years. (Source:
LINX See London Internet Exchange.
List A collection of names and addresses held in a reusable form. (Source:
List broker A specialist individual or company with a wide knowledge of the list business who makes recommendations to potential list users taking into account their particular needs and requirements. A true list broker should have no particular allegiance to any single list or owner.
List catalogue A list of mailing lists available for rental.
List cleaning The process of correcting, or removing incorrect entries from a mailing list. Any procedure carried out for this purpose.
list code code is printed somewhere on the reply device to indicate the source list of responses.
list compiler researcher who builds lists from directories and other published sources.
list conversion hanging one magnetic tape format to another.
List data card A card which gives full details of a list for rental.
List exchange An agreement drawn up by two organisations, in which the lists are mutually exchanged.
List maintenance The process of correcting, removing or adding a record on a list.
List manager The agent retained by list owners, to maintain or market their list(s).
List owner An individual or organisation who has built or gathered their own list, generally through trading or compilation.
List price The cost of a list. Also the listed price of a product before discounts etc.
List rental An arrangement where a list owner or manager supplies a list to a mailer in return for a rental fee.
List sample A group of names taken at random from a list, in order to evaluate its qualities and assess its value.
List segment Portions of a list which have been selected against specific criteria, e.g. geographic area, lifestyle, gender and age.
List segmentation The process of sorting and selecting names from a list into list segments.
List sequence The order in which names and addresses are kept in a file, e.g. alphabetically or in ‘town and county order’.
List sort The process of putting a list into a specific order (either from an existing sequence or none at all).
List source The media from which names for a list are obtained.
List test A test carried out by mailing a sample taken from two or more list segments or entire lists.
List user A person who uses someone else’s list names for their own mailing.
Listing A computer printout of data or a file.
Listserv An automatic mailing list server developed by Eric Thomas for BITNET in 1986. When email is addressed to a LISTSERV mailing list, it is automatically broadcast to everyone on the list. The result is similar to a newsgroup or forum, except that the messages are transmitted as email and are therefore available only to individuals on the list. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Literal A keyboarding or typesetting error. (Source: Marketing Week)
Litho, lithography A method of printing from a metal or stone surface on which the printing areas are made ink-receptive.
Live When used in reference to a world wide web file, this term designates an object linked to another layer of information or describes when a particular website will be placed on the internet such as ‘it’s going live next week.’
Live names Active or current customers, enquiries or other sources of names and addresses which have recently been verified, i.e. not ‘dead’ or ‘gone away’. (Source: www.netlingo.cominframes.html)
Livecam Also called a Webcam. A video camera, usually attached to a computer, to provide images for a WebPages. The original cams looked at fish tanks, coffee machines or out of windows. A famous one is the Jenicam, which provides a Web based fly-on-the-wall documentary. Many are on sex sites. Will be used for travel promotion, traffic information, or coverage of events as users get access to more bandwidth. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Livelock A situation in which some critical stage of a task is unable to finish because its clients perpetually create more work for it to do after they have been serviced but before it can clear its queue. Differs from deadlock in that the process is not blocked or waiting for anything, but has a virtually infinite amount of work to do and can never catch up. (Source: Marketing Week)
LMDS See Local Multipoint Distribution Service.
Load balancing Techniques which aim to spread tasks among the processors in a parallel processor to avoid some processors being idle while others have tasks queuing for execution. Load balancing may be performed either by heavily loaded processors (with many tasks in their queues) sending tasks to other processors; by idle processors requesting work from others; by some centralised task distribution mechanism; or some combination of these. Some systems allow tasks to be moved after they have started executing (“task migration”) others do not. It is important that the overhead of executing the load balancing algorithm does not contribute significantly to the overall processing or communications load. (Source:
Loading The transfer of funds from a demand deposit account in a bank to an online account (eg a CyberCash demand deposit account) so that the funds can be sent over the net to another company or individual. (Source:
Local advertising Advertising relating to a local area and therefore placed on local radio or in the local newspapers.
Local Area Network (LAN) A computer network situated within a given locality, typically one building or one site.
Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) A company which provides local telephone service to homes and businesses within a given area (eg a Regional Bell Operating Company such as Pacific Bell). (Source:
Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) A broadband wireless network that uses high frequencies to transmit video and data to local homes. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Localisation Designing different versions of a website’s content in such a way that it is appropriate to different audiences in diverse countries.
Location Based Services (LBS) A range of services that are provided to mobile subscribers based on the geographical location of their handsets within their cellular network. LBS include driving directions, information about certain resources or destinations within current vicinity, such as restaurants, ATMs, shopping, movie theatres etc. LBS may also be used to track the movements and locations of people, as is being done via parent/child monitoring services and mobile devices that target the family market. (Source: IAB)
Locator An advertisement or service through which an advertiser’s bricks and mortar location can be identified based on proximity of the consumer or their preferred location). (Source: IAB)
Lock-in The insertion of one item within another before enclosing into a mailing pack or magazine.
Log file A file which records many activities on a server, counting the number of times each event took place. Among other measurements, Web server log files typically record each time a page on a Web site is requested, when it was requested, the type of browser that requested the page, whether the visitor was visiting the site or page for the first time (a first-time visitor) or a repeat visitor, and possibly the domain name of the user who requested the page. Traffic analysis software can operate on log files to determine how successful the Web site is and suggest ways the Web site might be improved. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Logic Bomb A malicious computer bug similar to a virus but does not replicate itself. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Login/Logon Terms used to identify yourself to the computer system when entering a computer system. It would normally consist of name and a password. It provides an element of security to the system and your particular personal parts of the system. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Logo/logotype An emblem which a company or organisation uses to establish and project its identity. (Source:
London Internet Exchange (LINX) Provides the main connection in the UK between the various Internet Service Providers. When you connect to a web site the chances are that your request and the web page that is returned to you both pass through LYNX. It is sited in “Telehouse” in the Docklands area of London. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Long tail Frequency distributions for online searches show large numbers of less popular, niche keyphrases being used to search for products and services – most evident when distribution frequency of search terms is displayed on a graph. Reflects Zipf’s law.
LonWorks A technology for control networks, including networks for home automation, developed by Echelon Corporation. Development time for network applications is greatly reduced by the implementation of the LonWorks architecture in integrated circuits available from Motorola and Toshiba. (Source:
Loose insert A printed promotional piece separate to, but inserted within, a magazine or newspaper.
Loose leaf A method of binding, employing metal posts in a file to hold loose sheets together by means of holes punched into the left-hand edge of the paper.
Lose To fail. A program loses when it encounters an exceptional condition or fails to work in the expected manner.
Loss leader A temporary price-cut, usually in order to attract increased store traffic or a first purchase, e.g. from a catalogue. (Source:
Lossage The result of a bug or malfunction. This is a mass or collective noun. “What a loss!” and “What lossage!” are nearly synonymous. The former is slightly more particular to the speaker’s present circumstances; the latter implies a continuing loss of which the speaker is currently a victim. Thus (for example) a temporary hardware failure is a loss, but bugs in an important tool (like a compiler) are serious lossage. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Lottery A sales promotion device based on chance and subject to strict Laws. (Source:
Low-res Abbreviation for low resolution.
Lower case Type consists of upper and lower case letters. Upper case describes the capitals, lower case the remainder.
LTV See Lifetime Value, also Customer Lifetime Value.
Lynx A World Wide Web browser that displays only text. ch as Fed Wire (which see in the hard copy dictionary). (Source:
Mac The Mac is a computer – an alternative to the PC and generally used for design and desk top publishing. MAC and PC are incompatible. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Machinable envelope An envelope which is designed for use with an enclosing machine, characterised by a wide ‘mouth’ and long rectangular gum-flap. (Source: Marketing Week)
Machine proof A proof that has been prepared from a print machine plate, or blocks as for the run.
Macro A small programme. A sequence of commands or keyboard strokes that can be saved and then recalled with a single keyboard stroke. (Source:
Magalog A catalogue which has a sufficient element of editorial so that its recipients perceive it as a magazine. (Source: Marketing Week)
Magenta Process red. One of the colours used in four-colour process printing.
Magic Cookie The name cookie derives from UNIX objects called magic cookies. These are tokens that are attached to a user or program and change depending on the areas entered by the user or program. Cookies are also sometimes called persistent cookies because they typically stay in the browser for long periods of time. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Magnetic tape Means of recording computer held information. Generally a tape 0.5 inch wide in 2400, 1200 or 600 foot lengths. (Source:
Magtape As magnetic tape.
Mail bomb A very large email message (or a large number of smaller messages) that clog up the email system of the recipient.
Mail date protection Interval of agreed time that a list is not used for mailing, eg A week before or after a list is used by a mailer, in order not to vie with other promotions. (Source:
Mail interview A questionnaire survey sent to a consumer, completed by them and returned to the mailer. Usually postal interview.
Mail order A buying/selling transaction carried out by mail. Strictly speaking, the order should be placed and fulfilment carried out by mail. However, often the order is placed via other media (e.g. telephone) and order delivery may also be non-postal.
Mail order buyer A person who makes a mail order purchase.
Mail order product A product suitable for, or offered by, mail order.
Mail Preference Service (MPS) A central service set up by the main trade associations in direct response advertising whereby the general public can request their name and address to be added or removed from participating companies’ mailing lists.
Mailer The organisation on whose behalf the mailing is being carried out. Also a quick mailing piece, usually one-piece.
Mailing date The date direct mail pieces are put into the post (and the date any rented list owner has agreed for his list to be used).
Mailing house A company which offers all aspects of a direct mail service, prior to its despatch (from idea, printing, packing, through to mailing).
Mailing List A mechanism for sending copies of a single Email note to more than one recipient using a single list name. It is automatically sent to everyone on the list. The copies can be made on the user’s machine. Alternatively a single copy is send to a server on the Internet for copying and sending on to a fixed list of recipients. There are thousands of mailing lists operated on the Internet on all imaginable topics. Alternatively it is the final file of names and addresses used for a mailing campaign. This would be a single list but may be a processed file created from a number of lists.. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Mailing preference service A system of registration for individuals who do not wish to receive unsolicited mail. Referred to as MPS and administered by the Direct Marketing Association.
Mailshop A combined poster and display leaflet dispenser sited in post offices, which can be rented to advertisers of products and services.
Mailsort (], 2, 3) Schemes for pre-sorted mailings for which the Royal Mail offer discounts. There are three service standards: first class, second class and slower bulk rate.
Mainframe A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Majordomo A free mailing list server that runs under UNIX. When email is addressed to a Majordomo mailing list, it is automatically broadcast to everyone on the list. The result is similar to a newsgroup or forum, except that the messages are transmitted as email and are therefore available only to individuals on the list. (Source:
Make ready The preparation time in setting up a print or other machine before actual production can get underway. (Source: Marketing Week)
Make-up The positioning of type and illustration to conform to a layout. More usually called a paste-up.
Management Information System (MIS) A system of assessing information needs, gathering data, analysing it, and disseminating the information derived to marketing decision makers.
Mandelbug A bug whose underlying causes are so complex and obscure as to make its behaviour appear chaotic or even non-deterministic.
Manila A tough brown or yellow paper which was originally made from manila hemp. Often used for envelopes. (Source:
Manuscript Typed or handwritten copy for setting. The text of any published work before typesetting.
Marginal cost The cost of producing one additional unit after all set-up costs have been accounted for.
Margins Areas of white space around the text matter on a page. Also in accounting, profit.
Marked proof The proof on which the printer’s reader has made corrections and queries etc.
Market aggregation A marketing strategy in which an organisation treats its entire market as if it is homogeneous.
Market analysis The study of a market to discover what its various characteristics are.
Market expansion The strategy of seeking additional buyers by expanding promotional efforts into new areas.
Market index A numeric expression of a market factor.
Market research Research which seeks and analyses information from the market as a basis for decision making.
Market segmentation The process of dividing a market into portions or groups with distinctive characteristics.
Market share One company’s percentage share of the total industry sales within a given market.
Market-based pricing A pricing strategy whereby a product is priced only in relation to the competitive market price, rather than the price being influenced by company or provisional costs.
Marketing The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably. (Source: Commonsense Direct Marketing)
Marketing information system An ongoing, organised system gathering and processing information to assist with marketing.
Marketing mix A combination of elements that make up the core of an organisation’s marketing system, e.g. product, price, distribution and promotion.
Marketspace A fairly new term for describing the transition from traditional physical marketplaces to virtual markets based on and controlled by information. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Markup Instructions on a layout or copy for the compositor to follow when typesetting or making up pages. In accountancy profit.
Mashup Combining data and/or content from different online sources to create an integrated service or tool, or single combined view of web content. (From the pop music practice, notably hip-hop, of producing new songs by mixing two or more tracks.)
Mask An overlay which masks out unwanted areas in a photograph or on a piece of artwork (usually opaque). (Source:
Masking paper Opaque orange paper on which film is assembled for platemaking.
Mass customisation The use of technology such as the internet and databases to deliver customised or personalised services on a mass basis, in an attempt to give each customer the specific things/information they’re asking for.
Mass individualisation The customising of products for individual consumers on a large scale and at a low cost. It requires the consumer to participate in the individualisation. (Source:
Master file An original or permanent file. Can have a number of segments.
Masthead A graphic device which displays a publication’s name on the front page, at the top.
Match code A numerical or alpha reference code generated by computer to form a unique identifying code.
Matching-in The process of inserting a name, address or other phrase into spaces within a preprinted piece of text so as to be as nearly indistinguishable as possible, one from the other.
Materials, Repair and Operations (MRO) Non-production. Office stationery and furniture are MRO goods.
Matrix A grid, an arrangement of rows and columns. Also, a fanciful term for a type of cyberspace expected to emerge from current networking experiments.
Matrix printer A printer where each character is produced by a set of dots, usually selected from a 7 x 9 matrix of print needles. Frequently print a character at a time, but line printers are also available. Largely redundant today, although still used for large data printouts. (Source:
Matt A dull soft finish, as opposed to glossy.
Matter Copy or manuscript to be printed.
Maven Market mavens are consumers with general product knowledge who act as disseminators of product information, influencing others’ purchase decisions. ‘Market mavenism’ is the consumer tendency to become especially involved in the marketplace.
Mavenism See ‘Maven’.
MBps See Megabytes per second.
Measure Typographical expression for the specified width of a line to which type is set for reproduction or other purposes.
Mechanical data Information supplied about a publication by publishers to prospective advertisers, e.g. page length and column width.
Mechanical printing In paper, descriptive of a cheap, often recycled, paper such as newsprint etc., containing mechanical pulp.
Mechanical repro Camera-ready artwork.
Medallion The microchip within a smart card.
Media A platform for communications such as TV, radio and press.
Media fragmentation Describes a trend to increasing choice and consumption of a range of media in terms of different channels such as web and mobile and also within channels, for example more TV channels, radio stations, magazines, more websites. Media fragmentation implies increased difficulty in reaching target audiences.
Media independent An organisation which specialises in buying media time and space, in the same role as the media department of a large advertising agency.
Media Neutral Planning (MNP) “A rigorous process for the selection of communication options which combines facts, imagination and impartiality in order to drive continual improvement to overall ROI” through choosing the optimum mix of media. MNP encompasses channel, communications mix and media planning and is aligned with the principles of integrated marketing communications. This MNP definition was created by The Media Neutral Planning Group (
Media owner Proprietary owner of a communications medium (for example, newspaper publisher, website publisher) that can be used by advertisers to reach their target market.
Media plan A plan for media showing the budget and the rationale.
Media schedule A record of space or other bookings planned for a campaign.
Media-multiplier effect When media are used in combination as part of an integrated communication plan, they work differently than when used alone.
Medium (media) The vehicle(s) by which messages and communications are carried to customers.
Megabyte One million computer bytes (loosely termed one million characters).
Megabytes per second (MBps) A measure of data transfer speed. Mass storage devices are generally measured in MBps. (Source: Computer Active)
Megahertz A way of measuring a computer’s speed and performance . (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Member-Get-Member (MGM) A marketing technique whereby a member is offered an incentive to get a friend to join as a member. (Source: Marketing Week)
Meme Richard Dawkins’ term for an idea passed on from one generation to another – cultural equivalent of a gene. Examples might include the idea of God and the information superhighway. Memes are not necessarily false beliefs but, in Dawkin’s view, they fight for survival in the meme pool of ideas. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Memetics The study of memes. As of mid-1993, this is still an extremely informal and speculative endeavour. Memetics is a popular topic for speculation among hackers, who like to see themselves as the architects of the new information ecologies in which memes live and replicate. (Source:
Memory Also known as Random Access Memory (RAM): the computer’s temporary storage area, measured in megabytes (Mb). Anything written to memory will be lost when the power is switched off. The more you have the faster the computer is, consider 16Mb minimum. (Source:
Merchants Offline and online retailers. (Source: Computer Active)
Merge The process of combining two or more mailing lists in order to build one larger one. (Source:
Merge and purge The process of combining two or more mailing lists in order to build one larger one, but including the removal of duplicates.
Messaging Plus Unit A standard-sized interactive (online) advertising unit that is part of the IAB’s Universal Ad Package, and which provides a platform for marketers to deliver rich messages. (See
Meta search engine A search engine that displays results from multiple search engines. (Source: IAB)
Meta-data Data about data, usually in digital form and conforming to a well-defined template, of a set of useful data. Also, an index composed of such descriptions. Analogous to a card in a library card catalogue system, a metadata description of a set of data might include an abstract of the data and the data’s format, multimedia content, location, and usage fees. (Source:
Meta-Message In the EDIFACT standard, a message that describes the structure of other messages. (Source:
Meta-tags/ descriptions HTML tags that identify the content of a web page for search engines. (Source: IAB)
Metcalfe’s Law The total value of a network to its users grows as the square of the total number of users. Bob Metcalfe’s law shows that ratio of value to cost is disproportionate to rate of increase of the network, i.e. growth in numbers can give increasing returns.
Mg (machine glazed) Paper with a smooth finish on one side that is created by being rolled through hot rollers. eg poster paper (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
MGM See Member-Get-Member.
MHz Stands for megahertz. The frequency of a timing signal that’s equal to 1,000,000 cycles per second. A measure of how fast the processor in your PC works. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Microcash A form of electronic currency. Since electronic currency is strictly numerical there are no denominations per se, thus allowing “sub-denomination” transactions of fractions of a penny or of a cent. (Source: Computer Active)
Microsite A small-scale separate website (or pages within a website) with a separate URL, providing specific information about a product or service (also called a minisite). Also refers to a designated area on digital cable or satellite TV platforms that can be owned by an advertiser that is used for information, data-capture, callback and branding.
Microwave radio transmission technology (MVDS) A new method of broadcasting television signals over short distances.
Middle tones Tonal range between highlights and shadows (Source:
Middleware Sometimes a system will have several different back-end databases supplied by different manufacturers. Each database may use its own protocols for software to access the database. To overcome this problem middleware provides a consistent programming interface to different databases. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Millions of bits per second (Mbps) A measure of bandwidth. Source:
MIME See Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions.
Mini-DAL (Mini Dedicated Advertising Location) Digital television equivalent of a microsite, usually built for a specific campaign or marketing activity, such as a competition. (See also DAL)
Mini-web Small web offset machine producing 8pp or 16pp A4 colour sections (Source: Marketing Week)
Mirror site A mirror site of a website is an exact copy of the original site. They are commonly used for web and FTP sites when the original site cannot cope with the load that is being put on it.
MIS See Management Information System.
Misfeature A feature that eventually causes lossage, possibly because it is not adequate for a new situation that has evolved. Since it results from a deliberate and properly implemented feature, a misfeature is not a bug. Nor is it a simple unforeseen side effect; the term implies that the feature in question was carefully planned, but its long-term consequences were not accurately or adequately predicted. A misfeature can be particularly stubborn problem to resolve, because fixing it usually involves a substantial philosophical change to the structure of the system involved. (Source: Marketing Week)
Misregister One or more colours printed out of alignment with other colours. (Source:
Mixed-mode buying The process by which a customer switches between online and offline channels during the buying process.
MMA See Mobile Marketing Association.
MMS See Multimedia Messaging Service.
MNP See Media Neutral Planning.
Mo-blogging Mobile blogging. See Blogging.
Mobile Application (Mobile App) A type of application software designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Mobile applications frequently serve to provide users with similar services to those accessed on PCs. Apps are generally small, individual software units with limited function. This use of software has been popularized by Apple Inc. and its App Store, which sells thousands of applications for the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch. A mobile application also may be known as an app, Web app,online app, iPhone app or smartphone app. (Source.
Mobile commerce (M-commerce) The ability to conduct monetary transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled mobile phone. (Source:
Mobile internet advertising A form of advertising via mobile phones or other wireless devices (excluding laptops). This type of mobile advertising includes mobile web banner ads, mobile internet sponsorship and interstitials (which appear while a requested mobile web page is loading) as well as mobile paid-for search listings. Mobile internet advertising does not include other forms of mobile marketing such as SMS, MMS and shortcode. (Source: IAB)
Mobile Internet Provider (MIP) An ISP dedicated to providing wireless service. (Source:
Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) A global non-profit association that strives to stimulate the growth of mobile marketing and its associated technologies.
Mock-up A layout or rough of artwork. Also called a visual.
Mod Short for modify or modification. Very commonly used – in fact the full terms are considered markers that one is being formal. The plural ‘mods’ is used especially with reference to bug fixes or minor design changes in hardware or software.
Modem Modulator demodulator. A device that is used to transmit data between two computers over a normal telephone line.
Moire Undesirable pattern in printed screens caused by incorrect angles of screens. (Source: Marketing Week)
MOM Message-Oriented Middleware. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Moment of truth The places and times when customers come into contact with your brand or offering – and which have an especially significant impact on their attitude or behaviour towards these. See also ‘Customer touchpoints’.
Monetary value One of the criteria for judging the potential value of a person on a mailing list.
Monochrome One colour, usually black.
Monotype A brand name for a ‘hot-metal’ type-casting machine, which assembles characters individually, rather than line by line. Now largely obsolete but used by some newspapers. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Montage Several images assembled into one piece of artwork.
MOSAIC Mosaic Global, supplied by Experian, is a single, consistent classification that provides insight into the demographics, lifestyles and behaviours of 880 million people from the world’s major economies, including North America, Europe and Asia Pacific.
Motherboard The main circuit board in your computer. It’s usually varnished in green to protect the tiny connections and has the main components and connectors soldered to it.
Motion/Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) A file format used to compress and transmit video clips online. (Source:
Mouse A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface.
Mouseover Refers to a JavaScript element that triggers a change on an item (usually a graphic) in a web page when the cursor passes over it. The change usually signifies that the item is a link to related or additional information. Also referred to as ‘hovering’.
MP3 An audio file format. In the early days of internet file-sharing, MP3 became popular due to its small footprint. At the time there wasn’t today’s access to broadband connections, making it impractical to share file sizes larger than the MP3 standard 2-3 Megabytes. WAV and AIFF files are higher quality formats, but some consumers still prefer MP3. (Abridged from:
MPEG See Motion/Moving Picture Experts Group.
Mpeg Layer 3 (MP3) Standard for video compression developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group, which allows bandwidth-hogging digital video to be compressed before it is sent over the networks. (Source: Marketing Week)
MPS See Mailing Preference Service.
MPU Main Power Unit; and Multi-Purpose Units A square online advert usually found embedded in a web page in a fixed placement. Called ‘multiple purpose’ as it is a flexible shaped blank ‘canvas’ in which you can serve flat or more interactive content as desired. (Source: Also an acronym for: Microprocessor Unit (aka CPU, central processing unit); Memory Protection Unit (management unit in processors responsible for protecting system from unauthorised access); and see Messaging Plus Unit;
MRO See Materials, Repair and Operations.
MUD See Multi-user Dungeon or Dimension
Multi mailer A mailing which contains a number of loose single page promotional sheets easiest described as a catalogue, but in loose page format rather than bound in a book.
Multi-buyers People who have bought more than once from a mailer or advertiser.
Multi-channel attribution modelling See Attribution modelling.
Multi-channel homes Homes (in the UK) that receive more than the five analogue terrestrial channels.
Multi-channel marketing strategy Defines how different marketing channels will be used and coordinated to mutually support each other in terms of proposition and communications, based on their relative merits for the customer and organisation.
Multi-media A campaign using more than one medium of advertising or selling. (Source: Marketing Week)
Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) A method of encoding a file for delivery over the internet. (Source:
Multi-user Dungeon or Dimension (MUD) A virtual environment managed by a programme where users log into a system, adopt an avatar and interact with each other in a 3 -D environment. Can be used for gaming or education. (Source:
Multicast New standard for compressing audio. According to scare-mongers inside and outside the record industry, it is likely to herald the end of the music business as we know it. It allow music bands, fans and marketers and record companies to create easily downloadable CD-quality audio which can be played on a desktop computer or loaded into a Walkman-style device. Where some see a pirate’s charter, others see a cheap and easy way of getting promotional audio circulating across the networks or delivering free to produce finished products. Also means transmitting a message to a select group of recipients. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Multicode A key which generates several commands at once. (Source:
Multilith Proprietary name of a small offset press.
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Equivalent to SMS but, rather than just plain text, includes the ability to send pictures, formatted text, animation, video clips and sound. Unlike their SMS forerunners, MMS messages can be sent cross-platform, e.g. from mobile phone to email, and vice versa.
Multiple regression A statistical technique used to measure the relationship between response and lists or list segments. (Source:
Multiplexing System for combining independent (TV) signals into one transmission channel.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) The standard used on the Internet for identifying different types of file. It was initially introduced for attaching files to Internet Email messages, but is also used by Web Servers to inform browsers what type of file they are sending. Examples of MIME types are “text/html” for standard Web pages and image/jpeg for JPEG files. Recent browsers and Email systems handle a large number of MIME types automatically. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Multivariate testing Techniques that enable two or more variables to be tested simultaneously in the one experiment. Commonly used multivariate approaches include CHAID and regression analysis.
Mung `Mash Until No Good’; sometime after that the derivation from the recursive acronym `Mung Until No Good’ became standard vt. 1. To make changes to a file, esp. large-scale and irrevocable changes. (Source: Marketing Week)
Munge 1. derogatory To imperfectly transform information. 2. A comprehensive rewrite of a routine, data structure or the whole program. (Source:
MVDS See Microwave radio transmission technology.
Name acquisition Technique used to prompt a response in order to generate new names for a mailing list. (Source:
Namespace A mechanism for qualifying element names to make them unique in an XML document. For example would mean one thing in a railway application and another in a parcel service. “Rail” and “parcel” are abbreviations representing XML specifications for each of these application areas. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
NANA See News.Admin.Net.Abuse.
Nano A brief period of time. “Be with you in a nano”, means you really will be free shortly. (Source:
Narrowcast interaction In a television or online context, the ability to create a dialogue with a small, highly targeted group of viewers or users, sometimes even at a one-to-one level of interaction.
NAS See Network Access Server.
NAT See Network Address Translation.
Native advertising “A form of media that’s built into the actual visual design and where the ads are part of the content”, viewed by some as akin to ‘content marketing’. This concept emerged in 2012 and is ‘evangelised’ by Dan Greenberg, CEO of Sharethrough
Natural language engine ‘Reads’ incoming text and attempts to recognise it and picks up on keywords within the message in order to work out how to respond. Natural search resultsAlso knows as organic search results. ‘Natural’ search results appear in a separate section (usually the main body of the page) to the paid listings. The results listed here have not been paid for and are ranked by the search engine (using spiders or algorithms according to relevancy to the term searched on. (Source:
Navigation The actions of a user in exploring a Web site (or multiple Web sites) or in searching for information or resources. Also the design of a Web site, including links, text, graphics, and page layouts to facilitate navigation by users. (Source:
NCOS See Network Computer Operating System.
NCR No Carbon Required. Type of paper that provides a copy behind without a leaf of carbon paper between. Can be used for transferring sections of information from a document to a copy. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Near Video On Demand service (NVOD) The delivery of film and television programming from a server via a cable network or the internet. Like VOD, these services are nonlinear. Negative matching or excluded words in PPCThis match type prevents the ad being displayed when the search term entered by the user contains a word which has been defined by the advertiser as not relevant for displaying their ad.
Negative option A buying arrangement in which a customer or member accepts a proposition unless they formally notify the seller to cancel, often within the specified time period.
Negative sell A copy approach which leads off on a perceived drawback or disadvantage of the product or service.
Negative SEO A company aims to decrease the ranking of other sites (usually indirectly) by gaining more favourable mentions above a negative listing in the natural search engine results.
Negs A shortened photographic term describing negative film, being that used with positive plates to create an image.
Neighbourhood mailing Mailing the neighbours who live next door to or nearby a person who has responded to a mailing in the past.
NEST See Novell Embedded Systems Technology.
Nesting Placing one insert inside another, before inserting into an outer envelope.
Net An abbreviated term for the Internet, which slipped into conversation to connote familiarity. In theory, the Internet is bigger than the Web. It includes email systems, newsgroups and chat channels, but since the term has entered common parlance it has become synonymous with the graphical world of the Web. (Source:
Net cost The cost to the advertiser of reaching the target audience. (Source: Marketing Week)
Net disposable income This term is used to describe the amount of earnings a person has left after tax, bills and other essential outgoings have been deducted.
Net market Net markets are set up by intermediaries to allow online buying from several sellers via a single site. Prospective customers can search databases and compare products readily.
Net names The number of names used for a mailing, after duplicate and unmailable names have been eliminated. (Source:
Net Promoter Score Customer loyalty metric (proposed by Fred Reichheld) that is claimed to predict sustainable business growth. Based on customer answers to the question, “How likely are you to recommend us to a friend or colleague?” and scored using a simple formula.
Net revenue The amount of money banked at the end of the collection process, with all returns credited, money-back claims satisfied, and bad debts written off.
Net sales The total number of sales made, after returns and sales allowances have been deducted.
Net.personality Someone who has made a name for him or herself on USENET, through either longevity or attention-getting posts, but doesn’t meet the other requirements of net.godhood. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Net.police Those USENET readers who feel it is their responsibility to pounce on and flame any posting which they regard as offensive or in violation of their understanding of netiquette. Generally used sarcastically or pejoratively. Also spelled `net police’. See also net.-, code police. (Source:
Netburp When netlag gets really bad, and delays between servers exceed a certain threshold, the IRC network effectively becomes partitioned for a period of time, and large numbers of people seem to be signing off at the same time and then signing back on again when things get better. An instance of this is called a `netburp’ (or, sometimes, netsplit). (Source:
Netcasting The broadcasting of information over the Internet using server push technology. Generally limited to webcasting. (Source:,
Netiquette A term to describe the informal rules of conduct of online behaviour. (Source:
Netizen A citizen of cyberspace. An internet user. (Source: Marketing Week)
Netscape Officially called Netscape Communications Corporation, Netscape was founded by James H. Clark and Marc Andreessen in 1994. It revolutionized the computer software market by giving away for free its popular Navigator Web browser until it had acquired an overwhelming market share for this category of software. (Source:
Netscape Scripting Language A subset of Java, developed by Netscape, for use with Netscape Navigator.
Netting down Merge purge process to reduce the number of names and addresses in a file by the process of deduplication.
Nettop An alternate term for internet appliance. Also see set-top box in the hard copy dictionary.
Network A group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including: local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. (Source:
Network Access Server (NAS) A device to provide temporary access by individuals to a network. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Network Address Translation (NAT)The substitution of an official IP address for a private or unregistered IP address. NAT gives organizations more flexibility in assigning addresses internal to their network and allows users to share a limited number of registered IP addresses on an as needed basis. NAT is also used to make attacks (especially active attacks ) on the network much more difficult by avoiding the transmission of internal IP addresses over the Internet as either source or destination addresses. NAT is usually performed by a router or firewall. (Source:
Network Computer The term used by Oracle for an Internet appliance (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Network Computer Operating System (NCOS) An operating system from Oracle Corporation for use in Internet appliances . It will include electronic mail, videoconferencing, an Internet browser, and a rudimentary word processor. (Source:
Network effect The phenomenon whereby a service becomes more valuable as more people use it, thereby encouraging ever-increasing numbers of adopters. (Source:
Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP)Short for Network News Transfer Protocol, the protocol used to post, distribute, and retrieve USENET messages. The official specification is RFC 977. (Source:
Network override fees In affiliate marketing, a percentage fee on top of the commission that will be payable to your affiliate(s).
Network Service Provider (NSP) As opposed to Internet Service Providers who sell to end-users, Network Service Providers sell high volume Internet backbone capacity to Internet Service Providers. Network Service Providers often sell to end users as well. Sometimes called “carriers”, Network Service Providers include MCI, AT&T, Sprint, and European Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone (PTT) agencies. (See Internet Service Provider and backbone in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source:
New media Generally a term applied to media within the electronic areas rather than TV, radio, media etc. ‘New media’ forms are developing at a rapid rate and therefore it is only a relative term to define the latest developments.
Newbie Slang term for someone who is a new user of an online service, or generally new to the internet.
News.Admin.Net.Abuse (NANA) The newsgroups, devoted to fighting spam and network abuse. Each individual newsgroup is often referred to by adding a letter to NANA. For example NANAU would refer to (Source: Marketing Week)
Newsgroup Same as forum, an online discussion group.
Newsprint Paper made from mechanical pulp for the printing of newspapers. (Source: Marketing Week)
Newswire See Online newswire.
Niche A small, tightly targeted segment of a market to whom a particular product, variation of a product or presentation of a product may appeal.
Ninety (90) degree printing Print text or lines at right angles to the usual format.
Nixie The direct mail package returned to a mailer because of an incorrect address.
NNTP See Network News Transport Protocol.
Node Any single computer or other device, such as a printer, on a network. Sometimes also referred to as hosts, they each have a unique network address.
Nominal data Data made up of elements which can be counted in terms of frequencies, e.g. number of responses. (Source:
Non-repudiation The process that ensures that a document can only have been sent by the named sender and that it has not been tampered with en route. The sender can have no grounds for claiming that they never sent the document. When large sums of money are at stake it is essential that robust methods are used to ensure that all parties can have confidence in the security of the technology used.
North/south strip A term describing a specific type of sheeting for labels. (Labels on a reel as opposed to labels on a rectangular or square sheet.) (Source:
Notification The process whereby companies register with the data protection register to inform about their data holdings (and are thus effectively licensed).
Novell Embedded Systems Technology (NEST) A Novell technology for transmitting data over power lines, currently at one or two megabits per second and eventually targeted to reach ten megabits per second. It lets developers run NetWare 4 on microprocessors (yet to be developed and embedded in home appliances) that are not powerful enough to support a typical network node. See Smart Energy Network Alliance on this Web page and PLC (power line carrier) in the hard copy dictionary. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
NSAPI Netscape’s proprietary API for interfacing between the company’s Web server and back-end services such as databases. NSAPI provides higher performance than the industry standard Common Gateway Interface (Source:
NSP See Network Service Provider
Nth name A way of identifying names to create a test file. This involves taking a percentage of the total number of names by selecting out every Nth name. eg Of 50,000 names, where 10% are required, N would be every 10th name throughout the list. It is a way of giving some randomness to the test list. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Nuke 1. To intentionally delete the entire contents of a given directory or storage volume. “On UNIX, `rm -r /usr’ will nuke everything in the usr file system.” Never used for accidental deletion. Oppose blow away. 2. Syn. for dike, applied to smaller things such as files, features, or code sections. Often used to express a final verdict. “What do you want me to do with that 80-meg wallpaper file?” “Nuke it.” 3. Used of processes as well as files; nuke is a frequent verbal alias for `kill -9′ on UNIX. 4. On IBM PCs, a bug that results in fandango on core can trash the operating system, including the FAT (the in-core copy of the disk block chaining information). This can utterly scramble attached disks, which are then said to have been `nuked’. This term is also used of analogous lossages on Macintoshes and other micros without memory protection. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
NVOD See Near Video on Demand and Video On Demand (VOD)
Oakley A protocol for establishing session keys on Internet hosts and routers. Oakley provides perfect forward secrecy. It can be used with ISAKMP or by itself if attribute negotiation is not needed. Oakley describes a series of key exchanges – called “modes”– and details the services provided by each (eg perfect forward secrecy for keys, identity protection, and authentication). (Source:
OBI See Open Buying on the Internet.
Object Embedding and Linking (OLE) A set of rules which allow programs, operating in Microsoft Windows, to use objects created in one application to be incorporate into a document of another application. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Object Embedding and Linking Control (OCX) Microsoft programs which allow Microsoft’s Web server software to present animation and other capabilities. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Observational method The method of gathering information from primary sources by observing the respondents in person, rather than interviewing them.
Occupant addressing Using the words ‘The Occupier’ instead of a name in an address.
OCR See Optical Character Recognition.
OCX See Object Embedding and Linking Control.
ODBC See Open DataBase Connectivity.
OFCOM In the UK, inherited the duties of the five previous regulators: the Broadcasting Standards Commission (BSC), the Independent Television Commission (ITC), Oftel, the Radio Authority and the Radiocommunications Agency.
Off-line A computer term meaning the entry of information away from the processor, either by tape or by floppy disk. There is no direct access to the computer memory and the processor is not accessed by the operator.
Off-Line Debit Card A debit card which settles transactions by drawing funds from the user’s checking account approximately two days after the transaction – similar to the timing for paper checks. In contrast, funds are transferred almost instantaneously when online debit cards are used. Consumers and merchants handle off-line debit cards (also known as check cards) like credit cards. Customers sign a transaction slip but do not need to provide a PIN. (See debit card, settlement, clearing, and PIN in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Off-Line Debit Card System A debit card system where a number of small transactions are handled together in a batch process not at the time of purchase. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Off-line finishing Process of bursting, trimming, glueing and folding after printing to produce the final size and shape of a promotional piece. Offline means that this is a separate process to the printing process.
Off-peak Rates for advertising, when audiences would normally be at their lowest.
Off-The-Page (OTP) Obtaining a sale directly from a press advert.
Off-the-screen Obtaining sales directly from a television advertisement.
Offer The terms under which a product or service is promoted.
Offline A computer term meaning the entry of information away from the processor, either by tape or by floppy disk. There is no direct access to the computer memory and the processor is not accessed by the operator.
Offline finishing Process of bursting, trimming, glueing and folding after printing to produce the final size and shape of a promotional piece. Offline means that this is a separate process to the printing process.
Offset A method of printing from etched plates using ink and water, whereby the image is transferred from these plates onto a rubber mat before being transferred to the paper.
Offset cartridge Cartridge paper which has been specially prepared for use in offset litho printing.
OFT Office of Fair Trading. A UK government department.
Oil card A credit card issued by a major oil company. See retail card.
OLE See Object Embedding and Linking.
OMR See Optical Mark Reading.
On-pack A free sample or gift attached to the pack or promoted on the packaging of an item purchased.
On-sale date The date on which a publication goes on sale. This is often different from the cover date, for example with monthly magazines.
On-the-fly Describes a dynamic way of building WebPages from database information. Examples of pages that are built “on the fly” would include the results of a search engine request or presentation of data personal to the user. The opposite is “flat” HTML – static pages which can only be altered by manually editing the original HTML file. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Once only An intrinsic part of a list agreement, whereby it is understood that the mailer will only use names on a rented list once, unless prior approval of the list owner is sought.
One (1) up (2, 3, 4 etc.) Expresses the number of times an image is printed on a sheet, i.e. 10 up = 10 times on the sheet etc.
One (1) up (2,3,4 etc.) Expresses the number of times an image is printed on a sheet – i.e. 10 up = 10 times on the sheet etc.
One hundred and eighty (180) degree printing Printing text upside down.
One shot A solus mailing, promoting usually one product at a time.
One-stage sell A promotion designed to sell directly, without any follow-up process.
Online Turned on and connected. A computer term meaning that the input terminals or access points are directly linked to the processor, allowing interrogation of the computer for information.
Online broker A retail securities broker that either provides all its services over the internet (e.g. E*TRADE) or is an important competitor for online brokerage business (e.g. Charles Schwab).
Online HD or High Definition The delivery of high definition streamed video media. This typically conforms to 720p standards where 720 represents 720 lines of vertical resolution and p stands for progressive scan. (Source: IAB)
Online newswire A hub that dispatches targeted press releases to subscribers. Journalists register their areas of interest and receive summaries of relevant releases containing a link to the full release. (Source: Ruth Stone, Orchid PR)
Online partnerships Creating and managing long-term arrangements to promote your online services on third-party websites or email communications.
Online PR Maximising favourable mentions of your company, brands, products or websites on third-party websites that are likely to be visited by your target audience.
Online promotion contribution (reach) The proportion of customers (new or retained) who use online information sources and are influenced as a result.
Online reputation management Controlling the reputation of an organisation through monitoring and controlling messages placed about the organisation.
Online revenue contribution The direct contribution of the internet or other digital media to sales, usually expressed as a percentage of overall sales revenue.
Online sponsorship The linking of a brand with related content or context for the purpose of creating brand awareness and strengthening brand appeal in a form that is clearly distinguishable from a banner, button, or other standardised ad unit.
Online Value Proposition (OVP) The specific benefits and features of a website (or other online service offering), over and above the equivalent offline offering and as distinct from competitors’/competitive offerings.
Online video advertising Video advertising accompanying video content distributed via the internet to be streamed or downloaded onto compatible devices such as computers and mobile phones. In its basic form, this can be TV ads run online, but adverts are increasingly adapted or created specifically to suit online. Video advertising can be placed before (pre-roll), during (mid-roll) and after (post-roll) video content. (Source: IAB)
Opacity The degree of density of paper preventing the image on one side of a sheet being seen on the other. China clay is often used to give paper opacity. (Source: Marketing Week)
Open Buying on the Internet (OBI). Protocols for office supplies etc.
Open DataBase Connectivity (ODBC) Microsoft’s application programming interface (API) for moving information into and out of databases. It uses Structured Query Language (SQL) as its database access language. Each format of data to be accessed requires its own piece of code (a “driver”) to determine precisely how the data is to be accessed. (Source:
Open EDI A model for EDI in which trading partners’ applications exchange information with no prior human agreement required. It requires the use of an existing “scenario” developed by a user community. Open EDI will lower the barriers to establishing EDI relationships with new partners and facilitate the relationships between existing partners. The model is being developed by the international standardization committee ISO/IEC JTC1 SC30. CD 14662 is the draft standard. (Source:
Open Software (OSF) System whereby major computer companies provide software that can be Foundationshared across their product.
Open Video System A business model for distribution of video signals, established and regulated by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, in which an LEC (which see) may control up to a third of a video distribution system capacity and provide the remainder on a non-discriminatory basis to any and all content providers. An LEC operating within this model is not regulated as a cable TV system and is not required to obtain a cable TV franchise from the local community. (Source:
Operating System (OS) The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. (Source:
Opt-in An individual has given a company permission to use his/her data for marketing purposes. (Source:
Opt-in email Lists of internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial email about topics of interest. (Source:
Opt-out Opt-out is a form of permission marketing whereby the customer is given the opportunity to reject further promotional messages from a marketer. Frequently in the form of a tick box as on a reply coupon or response email. If an individual opts out, they are stating they do not want a company to use his/her data for marketing purposes.
Optical The effect of creating one picture from two or more.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) The interpretation of characters by a computer which scans the text and stores or reads or translates data.
Optical Mark Reading (OMR) Bars and dots, which can be identified by a specialist machine, are used on a page to code an item and provide direction to perform a particular function.
Optical scanner A machine which reads a line of printed characters and converts these into a usable form for processing.
Optimising communication Optimising communication depends on understanding customer groups, managing customers on a lifetime value basis and deploying a universal planning and evaluation framework, as well as the quality of leadership. (Source: Jenkinson, Mathews and Sain, 2005)
ORA See Organisational Registration Authority.
Orange Book American Department of Defense standard to classify computer security into four levels for specific applications or access.
Order form Form that a customer completes to purchase by mail or internet.
Order processing The handling of an order for goods or services through a clerical or computer system, normally to the point of producing a despatch note or invoice.
Organic search results The ‘natural’ search results that appear in a separate section (usually the main body of the page) to the paid listings. The results listed here have not been paid for and are ranked by the search engine (using spiders or algorithms) according to relevancy to the term searched upon. (Source:
Organisational Registration Authority (ORA) An organisation which does not issue digital certificates (which see in the hard copy dictionary) but registers users and vouches for their identity to a certificate authority (which see in the hard copy dictionary).
Organizational Registration Authority (ORA) An organization which does not issue digital certificates (which see in the hard copy dictionary) but registers users and vouches for their identity to a certificate authority (which see in the hard copy dictionary).
Original An initial image or item that is to be reproduced.
Orphan Annie A web page that has not been updated for a long time. It comes from the term ‘Orphan Annie’ meaning the page is a poor forgotten orphan. Almost as annoying as a broken link. (Source:
OS See Operating System.
OSF See Open Software Foundation.
Other Digital Subscriber Line (XDSL) The entire family of DSL technology supporting data rates from 128 Kbps to 52 Mbps over various distances between the subscriber and the telephone company central office. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
OTP See Off-The-Page.
Out-of-register Printing where the images of different colours are not in true alignment, so that reproduction is inaccurate.
Outbound link A link to a site outside the current site.
Outdoor advertising Advertising that appears outdoors on hoardings, bus shelters etc.
Outer The container for a mailing piece, e.g. envelope, plastic or wrapper made from other material.
Outer envelope The envelope used to carry a direct mail package to the prospect or customer.
Outline A typeface which contains no ‘solid’ area, merely an outline form.
Output Data or other forms of communication which come as a result of computer processing.
Output data The final data after computer processing, which is transferred from the computer’s memory to another device, e.g. printer or magnetic tape.
Outward postcode The first half of a postcode identifying the general area for delivery (the first two letters, followed by a number). The remainder of a postcode, called the inward code, identifies the exact location for delivery.
Outwork Operations given to another company, either for specialism or to increase capacity.
Outworker A person who undertakes finishing work for direct mail producers.
Over matter Copy (text) which cannot be accommodated due to space constraints.
Overkill In deduplication of a list, if similar names and addresses are removed, this could result in the removal of names which are not true duplicates. This is known as overkill.
Overlay Two meanings. In print, an overlay is the transparent cover over artwork which contains instructions for the underlying artwork. Digital TV: Used to prompt the viewer to press the red button on their remote control for more information, a competition, sample, etc. In the context of digital advertising, an overlay is online advertising content that appears over the top of the webpage.
Overruns Copies printed over the specified printing quantity. Also overs.
Overs Any unused material left once a job has been finished. Often print is ordered ‘plus overs’, to allow for spoilage while printing.
OVP See Online Value Proposition.
Ozalid A form of copying process used to proof film (a blueprint)
P2P Peer-to-peer (which see), or person-to-person.
P3P Platform for Privacy Preferences Protocol. Assures users of their privacy using definable criteria built into their browser. Allows website browsing without recourse to reviewing each websites’ privacy policy. Developed by World Wide Web Consortium.
PAC See PPTP Access Concentrator.
Package All of the components which make up a single direct mail shot.
Package insert A promotional piece which is included in the fulfilment package (i.e. with the shipment of the product or details of the ordered service).
Package test A test between one complete mailing piece and another, varying in offer, or creative approach or both.
Packet authentication User authentication plus assurance of data integrity. Within the context of IPSec authentication means packet authentication and assures the recipient of an IP packet not only that the sender is who he or she claims to be but also that the data has not been modified in any way during transmission. Within the general context of gaining access to networks and resources authentication assures the identity of the user without assuring data integrity. (See authentication and data integrity in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Pad To glue pages together that have a certain flexibility, such as in post-it notes or notepads.
PAF Postal Address File.
Page In traditional print, one side of a leaf; a printed page is called a ‘PP’. Referring to the internet, the subdivision of a website that is loaded to the computer at any one time.
Page display When a page is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen. (Source:
Page impression Advertising currency recording the serving of a web or DTV page to an individual user.
Page layout A defined layout which is used throughout the website.
Page make-up The process of assembling a page ready for printing. Also, a display showing copy as it will appear on a page in photo composition. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
Page one break A break in mid-sentence at the end of the first page of a direct mail letter, which is designed to encourage the reader to continue reading onto the next page. Also known as a run-on hook.
Page or ad impressions One-page impression occurs when a member of the audience views a web page. One-ad impression occurs when a person views an advertisement placed on the web page.
Page proof The proof of a page before it is printed.
Page pull test The test to determine the strength of a binding of an adhesive-bound book. Pagination the page numbering.
Page rank A search engine’s valuation of the quality and importance of a website or web page.
Page tag based tracking in PPC A Javascript code section is placed on your sales or registration confirmation or other value event pages and when the page is loaded it records the event on a server which can be related back to a cookie which was placed when the ad was clicked upon.
Page View A unit for measuring Web site readership which corresponds to one person viewing one page, or at least a portion of a page, one time. If a person leaves a certain page and returns to it in the same visit to the Web site two page views are counted. Page views are a more difficult to measure than hits but are a much more useful and relevant measure of the attention a page garners from viewers. (See hit and Web page in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Pagination Relates to planning content and numbering pages within a catalogue or booklet. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Paid cancel Someone who completes a basic buying commitment before cancelling that commitment.
Paid circulation The subscribers to a publication who have paid for their subscription to it.
Paid For Inclusion (PFI) In exchange for a payment, a search engine will guarantee to list/review pages from a website. It is not guaranteed that the pages will rank well for particular queries – this still depends on the search engine’s underlying relevancy process. (Source:
Paid listings The search results list in which advertisers pay to be featured according to the PPC model. This list usually appears in a separate section to the organic search results- usually at the top of the page on the right hand side. (Source:
Pamphlet A small publication which has more than one page (a leaflet), but fewer pages than a booklet.
Panel A sample of shops or people used for regular or periodic research, used to monitor performance etc.
Pantone A brand name of an international colour matching system for printing/art products, which has a common usage.
Paper tape A paper strip which records data as a series of punched holes, arranged in channels or ‘tracks’ across the width.
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995An act that requires all federal agencies to use electronic filing forms to reduce demands on the public for paperwork 10% by 1996/97 and 5% annually through the year 2000.
Paragraph opener A symbol denoting the start of a new section or paragraph, e.g. asterisk.
Paraspam Discussions about how to get rid of spam (that often take up more time than simply deleting the spam itself). (Source:
Parenthesis A round bracket, e.g. ( ).
Pareto’s law The so-called 80/20 rule. The general tendency for the majority of revenue to come from the minority sources.
Part-mechanical paper A type of paper containing both mechanical and chemical pulp.
Partial URL A Uniform Resource Locator which refers to locations in relation to the document currently being viewed, typically a location on the same server or website.
Partwork A publication which is split into different parts, each promoted and sold separately but combine together to create a single unit. These are often sold through mail order with additional binders to store the whole collection. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Pass One run through a printing press.
Pass-along Those readers of a publication who neither subscribed to it nor purchased it. Also secondary readers.
Passive attack An attempt to break security by capturing information without altering it. See active attack, one-time password system, and replay attack. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Password A group of letters or numbers which allow a unique user access to a secured website or a secured area of a website. (Source:
Past buyer A person who has bought from a company before, but not within the previous twelve months.
Paste-up The process by which an artist puts typesetting and photographs together into artwork.
Pasteboard Board made from the lamination of several thinner sheets.
Pay for Performance program Also called Affiliate Marketing, Performance-based, Partner Marketing, CPA, or Associate Program. Any type of revenue sharing program where a publisher receives a commission for generating online activity (e.g. leads or sales) for an advertiser. (Source:
Pay Per Click (PPC) A type of search marketing where advertisers can bid for placement in the paid listings search results on terms that are relevant to their business. Advertisers pay the amount of their bid only when a consumer clicks on their listing. Also called sponsored search/paid search. (Source:
Pay per click ad broker Intermediaries who manage the process for creating, serving and remunerating PPC ads on search engines.
Pay per click search marketing A relevant text ad with a link to a company web page is displayed when the user of a search engine types in a specific phrase. A fee is charged to the advertiser for every click on the link, with the amount bid for the click mainly determining its position on the search results page.
Pay per impression An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were seeing their ads. (Source:
Pay per lead The commission structure where the advertiser pays the publisher a flat fee for each qualified lead (customer) that is referred to the advertiser’s website. (Source:
Pay per sale A commission structure where the advertiser pays a percentage or flat fee to the publisher based on the revenue generated by the sale of a product or service to a visitor who came from a publisher site. (Source:
Pay Per View (PPV) In relation to TV, a payment model where viewers pay to watch specific programmes, as opposed to subscription for a whole channel or group of channels. Micro payments may be charged for shorter programming while feature films may attract larger sums.
Pay-TV TV service bought by subscription rather than the licence fee.
Payment Switch A network service, provided on Web servers from Open Market, that authorizes and executes digital payment orders over the internet which are backed by external accounts. The switch creates digital representations of conventional negotiable instruments (eg checks, drafts, notes, bonds) and forwards them to conventional financial institutions. The payment switch uses “payment URLs” (which see) to enable purchases over the World Wide Web. Once payment is assured, the switch sends an “access URL” (which see) to the buyer that confirms the purchase of an item to be delivered off-line or enables the delivery of an online product or service. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Payment threshold The minimum accumulated commission an affiliate must earn to trigger payment from an affiliate program. (Source:
Payment URL A URL used by a payment switch that specifies a merchant, the name of merchant’s payment switch, the URL of the product being bought if it is a product which can be delivered online, the price, the expiration date of the price/offer, and the digital signature of the payment URL derived from the merchant’s private key. The switch combines the payment URL with the encrypted buyer identification and password or passwords. After authentication of the buyer and the merchant, the switch authorizes payment by the buyer designated financial institution. (Source:
PC Personal computer or Politically correct.
PCI See Peripheral Component Interconnect.
PCT See Private Communication Technology.
PD See Public Domain.
PDA See Personal Digital Assistant.
PDF See Portable Document Format.
PDL See Program Design Language.
Pebble finish A textured surface to paper.
Peel offs Self-adhesive labels, which are stored on greaseproof paper, and often used for address-labelling items for posting.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) Simple process of online trading or exchange between individuals without the need of an intermediary, retailer or agent. Sometimes described more prosaically as person-to-person.
Penetration A measure of the uptake of a product in consumer research, i.e. the proportion of homes or the number of individuals who have either bought or used a product.
Penetration (TV) Percentage of all homes which subscribe to either satellite or cable TV; or, the percentage of cable homes passed which actually subscribe.
Penetration pricing A pricing policy, whereby a product is given a low price initially, in order immediately to reach a large mass market.
Peoplemeter Method of audience measurement used by BARB in the UK, allowing panel members to register their viewing by means of a remote handset.
Perceived value The notional valuation buyers attach to an item for sale when they first see it.
Perf Short for perforation. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Perfect binding Method of binding books without using wire stitching or sewing. Collated sections are trimmed and adhesive is applied to the spine and a cover glued on. Examples of perfect binding are telephone directories and paperbacks.
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) An attribute of some encryption methodologies which assures that compromise of a single key will permit access to only data protected by that key. For PFS to exist the key used to protect transmission of data must not be used to derive any additional keys, and if the key used to protect transmission of data was derived from some other keying material, that material must not be used to derive any more keys. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Perfecting Printing both sides of a sheet at the same time – in one pass of the printing machine.
Perforating The process of punching holes into paper or card either as a code, or in order to facilitate tearing off a part.
Perforator A keyboard which produces punched paper type.
Performance pricing model An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed performance criteria, such as percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. (Source:
Perfume application An especially formulated solution containing micro-encapsulated particles of perfume, which when rubbed, release a fragrance.
Periodical A publication which is issued at regular intervals (usually either weekly or monthly), e.g. a magazine.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Stands for peripheral component interconnect. A high-speed connection that can be used for components that to exchange large chunks of data. PCIs also offer ‘plug and play’ installation meaning they can be up and running very quickly. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PERL Practical Execution and Report Language used mainly for server side scripting and producing CGI scripts. Permission-based marketingThe sending of multiple marketing messages, typically email messages, to individuals who have given the marketer permission to send the messages to the individual.
Persistent cookies Cookies remain on the computer after a visitor session has ended. Used to recognise returning visitors.
Persistent pages A means by which to ensure dynamic web pages (non-static pages that are rendered using database-driven variables) are found and indexed by external search engines.
Persona Characterising segments or clusters of online prospects and customers – and particularly the way they are likely to use or interact with a website and its design – through common needs, motivations and environmental criteria.
Personal data Any information about an individual stored by companies concerning their customers or employees. (Effectively any data that can be related back to an identifiable individual.)
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) A handheld device that combines computing, telephone/fax, and networking features often in the form of a mobile phone. May use a keyboard, pen or voice recognition for input.
Personal interview A system of face-to face-market research.
Personal Video Recorder (PVR) An interactive TV recording device, storing programmes in digital form.
Personalisation The addition of personal information (e.g. name, address or other personal details about a prospect or customer) incorporated into the copy, usually via computer.
Persuasion marketing See Persuasive design.
Persuasive design (aka Persuasion marketing) On web pages, use of design elements, such as layout, copy, typography, and promotional messages to encourage users to take particular paths and specific actions.
PFI See ‘Paid for inclusion’.
PFL Paid-For Listing.
PFS See Perfect Forward Secrecy.
Pharming An illegal method of redirecting traffic from another company’s website (such as a bank) to a fake one designed to look similar in order to steal user details when they try to log in.
Phillipsburg A make of automatic inserting machine which collates and inserts mailing pieces into envelopes and seals them ready for posting. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Phishing (Phishing scams) Using email to direct people to fraudulent websites that look like (parody) real e-commerce websites, and where bogus transactions or data collecting activities can be conducted by fraudsters on unwitting consumers for the purposes of identity and other types of theft.
Photocopy A duplicate of a document reproduced on a copying machine. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Photogravure The process of printing from a photomechanically prepared surface (a negative image is transferred to the metal plate and an image etched into it). Ink is held in the recessed cells, from which the final print is created. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Photomechanical transfer (PMT) Paper negatives which produce a positive print by a process of chemical transfer (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Photomontage The use of images from different photographs in combination to provide a new composite image. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Photosetting The process of composing headlines and text photographically. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Photostat See Photocopy above. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PI deals Payment by results, i.e. per enquiry. A charge is made by sales or enquiries at an agreed rate.
Pica Has two meanings. A unit of measurement used in printing which is equal to 12 points (4.21 mm). Also the size of type commonly used on typewriters.
Picking line An arrangement of picking bins/shelves into a continuous line in a warehouse.
PICS See Platform for Internet Content Selection.
Piggyback The enclosure of an additional promotional effort into a company’s own or a second company’s mailing package. (Source:
Pilot error A user’s misconfiguration or misuse of a piece of software, producing apparently buglike results (compare UBD). “Joe Luser reported a bug in sendmail that causes it to generate bogus headers.” “That’s not a bug, that’s pilot error. His `’ is hosed.” (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Pin feed The method of feeding continuous stationery by lining up pins on the machines with a series of small holes in the mould ejector pin. (Source:
in hole perf. Perforating for easy tear off by punching a series of holes eg a sheet of postage stamps. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Pitch The measurement of the number of characters per horizontal inch in typewriter faces.
Pitney Bowes The brand name of a range of mailing machinery, especially franking machines. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Pixel The small dots on a computer screen that are used to represent images and text. Short for ‘picture element’. Used to indicate the size of banner advertisements.
PKCS #11 See Cryptoki. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PKI See Public Key Infrastructure.
Planner A person who is responsible for identifying and planning the media purchase for a promotional campaign.
Planning All the processes involved in getting ready for platemaking.
Plastic wrapping Polythene outer coverings used for mailing magazines, etc., Usually made by machine. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Plate In lithographic printing an image is etched onto metal (or plastic) plates and wrapped around a cylinder to which ink and water is then applied to produce a printer image.
Plate making The process whereby artwork is converted into letterpress or litho printing plates.
Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) A set of protocols developed by the World Wide Web consortium for communicating a rating for a Web, FTP or newsgroup server to an internet client. PICS is intended to give users a method for categorizing, rating, and filtering Web and other internet content. The protocols are extensions to both HTTP and HTML and allow users to customize selection criteria, or adopt, from a third party such as a Parent Teacher Association, established selection criteria or a list of sites to be screened out. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Plug-in A browser plug-in is a computer program that adds functionality to the browser. The plug-ins are used to handle file formats that the browser itself cannot handle. The plug-ins in effect become part of the browser, and are more efficient than helper applications. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
PM Preventive maintenance. To bring down a machine for inspection or test purposes.
PMS A Pantone colour-matching system that enables an exact identification and matching system for printing.
PMT See Photomechanical Transfer.
Pocket Normally applied to envelopes and indicates that the flap is on the short edge. These envelopes are usually unacceptable to mechanical inserting equipment.
POD Piece Of Data.
Podcasting Coined from Apple’s iPod range, the term is now used for audio file downloads in general. Downloads are usually in the form of .mp3 and related file types. Podcasting, or alternatively audio-casting, allows users to listen to audio content at a time that suits them.
Point Internationally accepted unit of measurement for type, the size of which is recognised by the number of points. There are 72 points to the inch.
Point of Presence (POP) A location where a you can connect to the internet or other network, typically via the telephone system. So if an Internet Service Provider offers a Point of Presence in London you will be able to access the internet by phoning London. Not to be confused with the other POP – post office protocol. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Point-of-sale display Display material used in a retail outlet to draw attention to a product or offer. (Source:
Point-to-Point (PPTP) A protocol for use with remote access which carries encrypted, secure traffic Tunneling Protocol over the internet between an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and a remote access server. It requires the use of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) between the remote client and the ISP and provides substantial savings versus telephone calls between the client and the remote access server using regular long distance or 800 number service. (Source:
Polite loading Fixed online advertising placements that load and display additional Flash content after the host page on which the advert appears has finished loading. (Source: IAB)
Polylope A polythene mail bag with a flap that seals in the contents. Can be printed to provide message or clear to reveal content. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Polypropylene Similar to polythene and used to make mailing bags or film for automatic wrapping machines. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
POP See Point of Presence, also Post Office Preferred
Pop-over ad Digital marketing term for an online display advert that appears in a separate window on top of the main or current browser window. (See also: Interstitial)
Pop-under ad Digital marketing term for an online display advert that appears in a separate window beneath the main or current browser window. It is concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimised. (Source:
Pop-up (paper/insert) A printed piece which is constructed so that when it is opened it ‘pops up’ to form a three-dimensional image.
Pop-up ad See Pop-over ad and Interstitial.
Pop-up survey Digital marketing term for an online survey that appears in a separate window on top of the main or current browser window.
Population The total domain or group of people being considered.
Portable Document Format (PDF) Fixed file format developed by Adobe. It holds a document with the content and presentation features fixed, thereby retaining all the features and style of the document at they were intended to be viewed. It makes transportation of documents more effective in appearing in the original style on all systems. To view a PDF requires an Adobe Acrobat Reader. This can obtained/downloaded free from Adobe Systems. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Portal A website that acts as a gateway to information and services available on the internet by providing search engines, directories and other services such as personalised news or free email. A portal is intended to be the site its users first connect to whenever they log onto the internet.
Portrait A picture or page with vertical dimensions which are greater than the horizontal ones.
Positional A low-quality copy of a graphic element (transparency or illustration) used in artwork to indicate the size and position of the graphic.
Positive An image on film or paper in which the dark and light values are the same as the original, as distinct from negative.
Positive option A method of distributing products or services, whereby orders are shipped and a person is billed until he or she formally cancels this order.
Post code 5 – 7 character code made up of 2 distinct parts – the outward half and the inward half, separated by a space. The outward code determines the destination town (from the source post towns view), the inward code corresponds to the postman’s walk order. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Post Office Preferred (POP) Describes envelope sizes which assist the processing through automated sorting offices. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Post-roll The streaming of a mobile advertising clip after a mobile TV/video clip. The mobile advert is usually 10-15 seconds. (Source: IAB)
Postal service representative (PSR) Each major post office has a representative who liaises with clients over postal matters. In effect, royal mail’s salesforce. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Poster site (TV) A small DAL (which see), limited in functionality, consisting of two pages.
Postmaster The email contact and maintenance person at a site connected to the internet or UUCPNET. Often, but not always, the same as the admin. The internet standard for electronic mail (RFC-822) requires each machine to have a `postmaster’ address; usually it is a liaised to this person. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PPC See Pay Per Click.
PPI Pre-paid Postal Impression. The printing of a facsimile stamp normally with a special post office serial number on the face of the envelope and handled by the post office in bulk.
PPS Additional postscript. Added after a postscript to give further emphasis to a selling point.
PPTP See Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol.
PPTP Access Concentrator (PAC) A Network Access Server capable of supporting the Point-to-Point protocol on one or more analogue or ISDN lines and supporting the PPTP protocol to communicate with one or more PPTP Network Servers using TCP/IP. See Point-to-Point protocol and TCP/IP in the hard copy dictionary. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PPV See Pay Per View.
Practical Extraction and Report Language (Perl) A programming language developed by Larry Wall, especially designed for processing text. Because of its strong text processing abilities, Perl has become one of the most popular languages for writing CGI scripts. Perl is an interpretive language, which makes it easy to build and test simple programs. (Source:
Pre-press proofs Proofs made by techniques other than printing.
Pre-roll video ads Adverts that run before, or while, an online video is loading; i.e. the pre-roll ad loads immediately a viewer requests to watch video. There can be more than one and, although of various lengths, this type of ad usually averages 21seconds in duration.
Pre-testing Research carried out to test advertising before a campaign is carried out.
Premium An offer, either free or reduced price, to persuade a recipient to respond to your promotion or purchase from the promotion.
Premium SMS (PSMS) Premium SMS. A text message that is charged at a premium over the standard rate.
Prepaid A mail order shipment for which there is no additional charge for postage, packing, shipping or handling. These costs have already been included in the purchase price. Also a response device requiring no postage to be paid by the responder.
Preprinted Part of the copy which has been printed before receiving additional printed material to it.
Presentation visual Also known as a finished rough. Material prepared as a sample of the proposed appearance of a printed work.
Presentment Demand for payment of a negotiable instrument (e.g. a cheque).
Press date The date on which a publication goes on the press for printing.
Press proof Proof taken from the press after make-ready but before the full run.
Press run The total number of copies produced in one printing.
Pressure-sensitive label A type of label that is attached to a backing sheet to make it easier for the recipient to peel off.
Prestel British Telecom’s information service which is available on screen via a telephone link. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Price comparison sites Price comparison sites enable online shoppers to compare prices on a range of products like electricity, broadband charges and mortgage deals. The best known and most popular are Kelkoo,, USwitch and specialist sites such as MoneySupermarket and TravelSupermarket. Google Product Search formerly Froogle) offers a similar approach. The site owners main revenue model is usually on a cost per click or on an affiliate based cost per acquisition model. They also generate revenue through advertising. Products and pricing details are usually uploaded from the merchant to the price comparison site through an XML feed. Price comparison sites are also known as shopping comparison sites or shopping comparison engines.
Price point The price people will pay for a product or service, or a level at which it becomes sensitive. (Source:
Price test A direct mail test to compare two or more prices for the same or similar product or service.
Primary colours Pure colours from which all other colours can be mixed. In printing colour mixing is a subtractive process. The primary printing colours are magenta, cyan and yellow.
Primary research The type of activity usually associated with surveys and interviews. It may be employed to answer either specific questions or to keep track of trends.
Print origination A printing term given to preparatory work completed prior to proofing.
Print out The production of information from a computer in hard-copy or printed form.
Print run The number of copies printed or the process of printing a particular job.
Printed postage impression See PPI above. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Printer’s error Often known as PE. Most frequently a literal or typesetting error.
Printing A process of low volume printing whereby tiny droplets of ink are sprayed onto the page. Used in low-cost office printers through to high-end proofing machines.
Privacy The right of an individual to control the personal information held about them by third parties.
Privacy statement Information on a website explaining how and why an individual’s data is collected, processed and stored.
Private Communication Technology (PCT) A mechanism developed by Microsoft and Visa to compete with Netscape’s SSL in enabling spontaneous, flexible, and secure commercial transactions. Microsoft’s STT builds upon PCT and is intended for end-to-end banking systems. (See SSL and STT in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Private Label Card Generally a store card, or other form of business linked and named card that is operated by a third party, usually a financial organisation. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Prize draw A chance raffle-type operation where a random selection procedure offers a prize to the names linked to the numbers/cards selected. It is used as an offer to promote a product or service offering and is designed to increase response.
Probability tables A set of statistical estimates which tabulate the confidence levels which can be achieved.
Process colours The 3 subtractive primary colours: yellow, cyan and magenta, plus black.
Process printing The printing of dots of colours ‘over’ (in fact, alongside) each other to produce different tints and hues.
Processor This is the heart of the computer. It does most of the hard work and the faster the processor, the better the system is likely to be.
Product information cards Business reply cards in a booklet, or a deck of loose cards. See Card Deck. (Source: Computer Active)
Product life-cycle The idea that most products pass through a predictable cycle which is an introductory phase followed by rapid growth, maturity, peak, and lastly decline.
Product line The range and diversity of products or services which a company manufactures.
Product manager An executive who is responsible for planning the marketing plan for a product or group of products.
Product mix The complete list of products or services offered by a company.
Product planning All activities that enable a company to decide what products it will market.
Product positioning Those activities which develop the intended image (in the customer’s mind) for a product in relation to competitive products.
Product stuffer A promotional piece which is enclosed with the fulfilment package. It often illustrates other ancillary items which can be bought.
Profile Description or picture of a customer typical to a company. The profile (composition of customers) is typically expressed in percentages of the total accounted for by each significant sub-demographic, e.g. age group.
Profiling Collecting and analysing information that individuals have provided about themselves (see registration) and information about their online behaviour (e.g. sites visited and content viewed), for the purpose of targeting marketing campaigns.
Profit Profit accrues when the revenue obtained from a commercial transaction is greater than its cost; or revenue less cost = profit.
Proforma (invoice) A list of ordered items that is sent to a customer so that the items can be paid for before they are delivered. (Source: Cambridge International Dictionary of English)
Program The set of instructions which instruct and control a computer in the performance of a task. (Source:
Program Design Language (PDL) 1. `Program Design Language’. Any of a large class of formal and profoundly useless pseudo-languages in which management forces one to design programs. Too often, management expects PDL descriptions to be maintained in parallel with the code, imposing massive overhead to little or no benefit. See also flowchart. 2. v. To design using a program design language. “I’ve been piling so long my eyes won’t focus beyond 2 feet.” 3. n. `Page Description Language’. Refers to any language which is used to control a graphics device, usually a laser printer. The most common example is, of course, Adobe’s PostScript language, but there
Programme schedule Plan of programmes to be output by a TV or radio company to enable prospective advertisers to select their particular slot.
Programming The design, writing and testing of a computer program.
Progressives Progressives are printed sheets of each process colour separately; one is laid on top of the other to give the overall effect. Printers use this to ensure that their weight and strength of colour is correct at each printing phase.
Promotion The presentation of material to inform and persuade the market as to a company’s product or service.
Promotional mix The promotional elements contained in a company’s marketing mix.
Proof A trial printed sheet or copy, made before the production run, for the purpose of checking.
Proof reader Someone who reads a proof in order to correct and amend copy or artwork prior to printing.
Proof reader’s marks Standard marks used by proof readers to indicate revisions to copy and artwork on printers’ proofs.
Proof-of-purchase A token, or other symbol, removed from a product’s packaging in order to qualify for a premium.
Proposition What the customer is being asked to accept; incorporates the offer.
Prospect A person who has either expressed an interest in a company or its product, or whose profile suggests they would be likely potential customers.
Prospect list A list of people considered to be prospects as defined above.
Prospect universe All those (individuals or companies) making the mailer’s potential customers, subscribers or contributors.
Prospecting Mailings whose purpose is to generate leads rather than to make direct sales.
Prosumer A contraction of ‘professional and consumer’, this term is loosely used to describe products that have the specification to meet a professional user’s needs, while being accessible (useable/affordable) to regular consumers.
Protocol In networking terms, a set of predefined rules for describing how computer devices on a network talk to each other – a sort of ‘common language’ in order for computers to exchange information.
Proxy A form of security on the internet. When you use a proxy or ‘proxy server’, your computer sends a request to a server on the internet via this proxy. For the server it looks as though the request is coming from the proxy, not from your machine. (Source:
Proxy Negotiation The establishment of a secure communications link where the negotiating parties (i.e. hosts) are not the endpoints for which the security association negotiation is taking place. Proxy negotiation allows the identities of the end parties to remain hidden. (Source:
PS Post script. An additional piece of text, separate from, and after the main body of text. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PSMS See Premium SMS.
PSR See Postal Service Representative.
PSTN See Public Switched Telephone Network.
Psychographics The study of consumers in terms of characteristics and qualities which denote their attitudes and lifestyle.
Public Domain (PD) Common abbreviation for `public domain’, applied to software distributed over USENET and from internet archive sites. Much of this software is not in fact public domain in the legal sense but travels under various copyrights granting reproduction and use rights to anyone who can snarf a copy. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Public Key Infrastructure Public Key Infrastructure. An infrastructure of security services and protocols including a hierarchy of Certification Authorities. Keys are used by CAs to issue certificates. CAs at the top of the hierarchy guarantee that keys used by subordinate authorities are authentic. (Source:
Public relations A means by which a company plans to control or change market attitudes and perceptions.
Public service advertising Advertising that urges the public to support a cause or campaign, usually issued by government.
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) The nationwide and worldwide telephone systems accessible on-demand from telephones and modems. It includes individual dialup subscriber lines as well as high capacity circuits that are shared by multiple users on a first come first served basis. It does not include dedicated local and long distance lines (eg dedicated T-1) provided by telephone companies to large organizations, to Internet Service Providers, and Network Service Providers. Sometimes PSTN is used to mean only those facilities accessible by analogue dial and to exclude ISDN. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Publisher The owner of a website that provides information, entertainment, software, or other content designed to attract and serve internet users. Also referred to as an Affiliate, Associate, Partner, Reseller or Content Site. Some publishers accept advertising and derive revenue from it. (Source:
Publisher’s letter A second letter, often an endorsement, sent as part of a mail pack to emphasise the contents of the main letter.
Pull Has three meanings. A proof. A single print for subsequent photo-litho production. The percentage response obtained from an offer.
Pull media The consumer is proactive in selection of the message through actively seeking out a website.
Pull-out section A part of a publication that can be pulled out in its entirety for separate use.
Punched tape Paper tape in which holes are punched, whose pattern represents data for inputting.
Purchase order A signed agreement to accept and pay for a particular item.
Purge The process of eliminating duplicate or unwanted records from a mailing list or lists.
Push advertising Proactive, partial screen, dynamic advertisement which comes in various formats. (Source:
Push media Communications are sent/broadcast from an advertiser to consumers of the message who are passive recipients.
Push technology A mechanism for sending information to your browser from a web site at prearranged intervals. You state what information you are interested in and how often you want it updated and the Web site transmits its contents to you accordingly. You do not have to go back and request the latest information. The same technology is referred to as Netcasting by Netscape and Channels by Microsoft. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
PVR See Personal Video Recorder.
PYOP Pay Your Own Postage. (Source:
Pyramiding A method used to test lists whereby a small quantity of names is tested to begin with. If positive indications are received from this initial test, further tests are carried out on larger and larger quantities of names.
QR code (aka mobile tagging) QR codes store addresses, URLs and other information that can appear in magazines, business cards, on signs and buses, etc. The code is scanned using a device such as a smartphone. (Source: Wikipedia)
Qualified enquirer A person who has acted in such a way as to indicate that he or she is a serious prospect for goods or services.
Qualitative data Data which measure intangible or objective data, such as peoples’ attitudes and opinions.
Qualitative research Research that examines qualitative rather than quantitative data, e.g. why a product is liked.
Quality control Control checks built into a system to ensure a quality standard is achieved.
Quantifiers In techspeak and jargon, the standard metric prefixes used in the SI (Syste`me International) conventions for scientific measurement have dual uses. With units of time or things that come in powers of 10, such as money, they retain their usual meanings of multiplication by powers of 1000 = 10^3. But when used with bytes or other things that naturally come in powers of 2, they usually denote multiplication by powers of 1024 = 2^(10). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Quantitative data Data which are measurable or quantifiable, such as length, weight, etc. (Source:
Quantitative research Research which is measurable or quantifiable, such as numbers, length, weight, etc.
Query string formation A query string is the set of words entered into a search engine by an individual. Query string formation is simply the process of thinking of the correct query string to get the results required. (Source: IAB)
Quicktime Apple’s standard for multimedia. The format can combine sound, text, animation, and a video in a single file. No longer confined to Mac computers, the format has also become a standard on Windows-based machines. Quicktime played an important part in proving that Apple’s operating system was “multimedia-ready”, but this advantage has been lost with Windows 95/98′s plug ‘n play technology making sound and video accessible to PC users. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Quota sample A sample specifically chosen as a being a cross-section of individuals directly proportional to the age, sex, class, etc. Of the total market they represent. This avoids the more complex sampling process of random sampling. (Source: Marketing Week)
Quote Abbreviation for quotation, 1) as in contract; 2) quoted words, e.g. testimonial.
QWERTY The first six letters on the first row of a standard keyboard first mass-produced in 1874. It was designed to stop frequently used typewriter keys banging into each other. It remains the standard and developers of palmtop computers and mobile phones have to find a way to accommodate it. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
RADIUS See Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service.
RAL See Refund Anticipation Loan.
RAM See Random Access Memory.
Random access A method of directly accessing an address on a computer file without any subsequent processing. (Source: Marketing Week)
Random Access Memory (RAM) The part of the computer where the operating system and programs run.
Random sample A sample which is selected in such a way that every unit has an equal chance of being chosen. (Source: Marketing Week)
Random sampling The process of selecting respondents at random for market research purposes, so that every person has an equal chance of being chosen.
Random selection A method of selecting one list sample from an entire list for testing purposes, so that every other possible sample has the same probability that it could be chosen.
Range left/right Justification of type or line matter to form a vertical margin either to the left or right.
Ranking A research term given to the act of placing items in order of preference.
RAS See Remote Access Server.
Rate card A document or card which sets out the costs for advertisement space, together with production details and copy dates.
Rate of return curve A graph which records the percentage response from a mailing over time.
Rating(s) See TVR.
Raw data Data before being processed or prepared.
RBL See Real-time Blackhole List.
RDBMS Relational database management system. (Source:
Re-run A repeat of a machine-run, usually because of an error, interruption or false start. (Source:
Reach The number/proportion of individuals/audience who have viewed an online advertisement or watched a TV channel or seen an ad campaign or website in a given period, expressed as a percentage of the total active web or other viewing population for that period.
Reader Short for proof reader. Or a device that can read from magnetic machines or from typescript.
Reader enquiry service A service run by a publisher which enables the reader to obtain further details of featured products and services from suppliers/advertisers, usually by the return of a postcard.
Reader’s proof The first proof of the printed material or copy for the printer’s reader.
Readership The total number of readers of a publication as distinct from its circulation.
Readership test A research measure to gauge the effectiveness of an advertisement by estimating the number of people seeing.
Real time Information delivered with no delay in the processing of requests, other than the time necessary for the data to travel over the internet. (Source:
Real User A commercial user. One who is paying _real_ money for his computer usage. 2. A non-hacker. Someone using the system for an explicit purpose (a research project, a course, etc.) other than pure exploration. See user. Hackers who are also students may also be real users. “I need this fixed so I can do a problem set. I’m not complaining out of randomness, but as a real user.” See also luser. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Real-time Blackhole List (RBL) A service that allows people to blacklist sites for emitting spam, and makes the blacklist available in real time to electronic-mail transport programs that know how to use RBL so they can filter out mail from those sites. Drastic (and controversial) but effective. There is an RBL home page ( (Source:
RealAudio A software product from Progressive Networks Inc. which enables the creation of audio files on web servers and delivery over the internet to web browsers. (Source:
Reality Check The simplest kind of test of software or hardware; doing the equivalent of asking it what 2 + 2 is and seeing if you get 4. The software equivalent of a smoke test. 2. The act of letting a real user try out prototype software. Compare sanity check. (Source: Marketing Week)
Really Simple Syndication (RSS, aka Rich Site Summary) Internet standard for publishing/exchanging content enabling you to select preferred online content for delivery directly to you by XML feed. BBC, The Guardian, IDM Members’ newsfeed provide it, amongst others.
Recall memory A term used in research as in spontaneous or prompted recall. Also the calling of a computer file from a backing store into memory. (Source:
Recall test A test to measure the effectiveness of an ad in terms of how many people can recall it.
Recency The time which has elapsed since a customer either bought from or entered into another transaction.
Reciprocal links Links between two sites, often based on an agreement by the site owners to exchange links. (Source:
Record Group of fields, logical piece of information, e.g. address.
Record format or layout The shape and nature of the contents of a record, i.e. what the various fields included in a record are.
Record keeping The continual maintenance and monitoring of data, e.g. on costs, test mailings, refunds, keys and conversions.
Recovery Key The key that is used to encrypt the key recovery field in a key recovery scheme. The recovery key is escrowed at a key recovery centre or parts of the key are escrowed at multiple key recovery centres. A single recovery key may be used with all versions of a particular product or methodology (e.g. Capstone – which see in the hard copy dictionary), with the specific organization using the key (e.g. customers using the Northern Telecom Entrust product), or with a specific key recovery centre (e.g. TIS, RSA, IBM, and AT&T). The recovery key may be associated with either party to a communication. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Red button Colloquial name for the button on remote control and other devices used to access interactive services provided through digital television.
Reduced price offer An encouragement to a prospective purchaser to buy a specific product at a lower price than usual.
Reel A roll of continuous ribbon or web of paper used on reel-fed or web printing machines.
Reel fed Paper and polythene are normally manufactured into reels. Printing and processing machines that can accept these reels are called reel fed.
Referral fees Fees paid by advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry. (Source:
Referral name The name of a person obtained by referral from a current customer.
Referrer mix The relative importance of the different communications that attract visitors to your website.
Refund Anticipation Loan (RAL) A very short term loan made by a bank to an electronic taxpayer once a tax return is filed and due to be repaid when the refund is received from the Internal Revenue Service. When the IRS receives the return it issues a DDI (Direct Deposit Indicator) number that assures the lending bank that the taxpayer has no other debt to the government. RALs were once viewed as extremely safe loans but fraudulent returns, filed specifically to obtain RALs, have forced banks to raise their fees or abandon making such loans altogether. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Register A colour printing term to describe the optimum position for colours to be laid down to give the correct focus and colour to the image.
Register marks Marks or devices used in printing to align different colour sheets.
Register, out of Effect caused when the four printing colours don’t perfectly align, so print looks slightly fuzzy or if severely out of register you can see distinct colour overlaps. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Registration A website visitor’s input of personal or business information into a form provided on the website. Registration allows the website owner to better understand viewers and customers, increases the likelihood of users returning to the site, and usually gains permission to send marketing messages to the visitor. (See opt-in and permission based marketing.) In return, the website owner may provide the registrant with access to restricted information (e.g. a research report), a website customized for the user, a free service (e.g. free email), a discount on products or services, entry in a sweepstakes, or some other inducement to register. Users generally expect, and websites generally provide, a privacy statement describing how the information will be used. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Registration service For access to many internet sites, registration of some personal or business information may be required.
Regression A mathematical technique which produces a functional relationship between two or more correlated variables. It is often used to predict values of one variable when the other values are known. (Source:
Regression analysis Regression analysis compares two or more variables and determines the ‘line of best fit’. The line of best fit line is used to read off the characteristics of customers and thus seek out further customers whose profile falls on or near the line.
Reintermediation The creation of new intermediaries between customer and suppliers providing services such as supplier search and product evaluation. (Source: Chaffey 2002)
Rejection Information that has not been accepted by the computer, either at the point of input, or on updating the file.
Relational Database A database based on the relational model developed by E.F. Codd. A relational database allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations and integrity constraints. In such a database the data and relations between them are organised in tables. A table is a collection of records and each record in a table contains the same fields. Certain fields may be designated as keys, which means that searches for specific values of that field will use indexing to speed them up. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Remote Access The ability of individual PC’s or branch office LANs to establish data communications with their organization’s backbone network, usually over dialup links. Remote access is most important for supporting mobile laptop users and enabling telecommuting. Organizations may lower their remote access administrative burden and telecommunication costs by contracting with an Internet Service Provider to receive dial-up calls at local POPs and route the calls over the network to the enterprise network. See Remote Access Server and Remote Access Concentrator. (Source:
Remote Access Server (RAS) A system which receives data calls, generally over telephone company dialup lines, and connects them to an enterprise backbone network. (Source:
Remote Authentication Dialin User Service (RADIUS) A public domain standard which defines the interfaces between a network access server, such as a firewall or a remote access server and a system which provides authentication, authorization, and accounting services. A RADIUS server is a system that provides these services and supports the standard RADIUS interfaces. RADIUS was originally developed by Livingston Enterprises. Also see an alternative to RADIUS called TACACS+. (Source:
Rendering The process of displaying a web page in the browser – displaying the text in the correct size, font and colour, displaying images, etc. (Source:
Renewal The process of re-subscribing to a series of publications or other renewable service. (Source:
Rental agreement An agreement whereby one party hires either a segment or an entire customer list that belongs to another for a one-time use, in return either for a set charge or other form of recompense.
Reorder lead time A mail order term for the period between when inventory requirements are assessed and the merchandise arrives ready to fill orders.
Reorder period The time period required to sell a commitment for merchandise. This is the sum of the reorder lead time (see above) and the time required to sell the stock held as safety.
Repeat buyer A person who has bought from a company more than once within a specified time limit.
Repeat mailing A second mailing to follow up a first, to the same list of names.
Repeat visitor Unique visitor who has accessed a website more than once over a specific time period. (Source:
Reply card Pre-addressed card to make it easier for the recipient of a mailing pack to respond.
Reply-o-letter A type of direct mail letter format which carries its own reply device in a paper pocket behind the top of the letter; once popular, particularly for lead generation.
Repro Pre-press camera work, scanning and film make-up.
Repudiation Backing out of, or denying part in, an e-business transaction.
Request for Comments (RFC) Used to reach agreement on internet standards. A document (RFC) presenting a proposal for a new standard is published for comments. After taking appropriate actions on the comments a new version of the RFC is published for more comments. At some stage it is agreed to go with a particular RFC and those responsible start implementing. Thus an RFC can be a proposal or an agreed standard. There are also RFCs which provide background information on a particular subject. All RFCs can be viewed on the internet. (Source:
Residence list A list of address records with no names. Direct mailshots are addressed to ‘The Resident’ or ‘The Occupant’ instead.
Resolution The efficiency of a photomechanical or computer graphics system in reproducing fine detail.
Respondent The person being interviewed or who replies positively to a mailshot or other direct advertisement.
Responder list A list of people who have responded to a direct marketing invitation/offer.
Response curve The graph produced by plotting the daily intake of responses as a result of a direct response advertisement.
Response rate The percentage of orders or enquiries received of the total number of people who received the promotion.
Response time The time taken before a computer command is displayed on a VDU screen.
Retail Card A credit card issued by a retailer, most commonly a department store, which generally requires no annual fee from the user. Unlike major bank cards which are intended to earn a profit for the issuing bank, retail cards operations are expected to lose money or breakeven since their value to the retailer is in encouraging customer loyalty. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Retest The verification of the results of a test campaign using the same materials sent to the same list (not the same people on that list).
Retouching Correcting, improving or altering a photographic print or transparency before reproduction.
Return address The address, normally preprinted on the outside of a mail carrier, to which undeliverables are to be returned.
Return days The number of days an affiliate can earn commission on a conversion (sale or lead) by a referred visitor.
Return envelope An envelope included in mailing which is self-addressed by the mailer.
Return on investment A measure of the performance and success of a campaign or particular promotion. Also known as ROI.
Return path In an interactive TV context, the means by which viewers can send signals from the TV back to the source.
Return visits The average number of times a user returns to a website over a specific time period. (Source:
Reversal Technique employed in processing printing plates whereby the original image becomes reversed.
Reverse b to w An instruction given to the printer to reverse black and white on an image.
Reverse flap The flap that closes a side-seam envelope.
Reverse out Type printing white out of another colour, or any light colour out of a dark surround.
Reverse type Type that is produced by printing a solid surround leaving the type white out.
Revise Short for a revised proof.
RFC See Request for Comments.
RFC 1827 An RFC which defines a standard method for IP data encryption as well as the encapsulating security payload. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Rich media The collective name for online advertising formats that use advanced technology to harnesses broadband to build brands. Rich media uses interactive and audio-visual elements to give richer content and a richer experience for the user when interacting with the advert. (Source:
Rich Site Summary See Really Simple Syndication.
Right reading Film that views from left to right from the emulsion side. Opposite ‘wrong-reading’. (Source:
Right touching Delivering the right offer, at the right time, frequency and interval using the right medium for each individual list member (prospect or customer).
Right-angle folds Folds that are at 90 degrees to one another.
Risk management Evaluating potential risks, developing strategies to reduce risks and learning about future risks.
River A term describing an undesirable visual effect caused when word spaces coincidentally form a long white ribbon of space down the page; or column.
Roach To destroy, especially of a data structure. Hardware gets toasted or fried; software gets roached.
Robot Used to refer to a piece of software that performs a function in the place of a human being. Specifically the search engine tools that surf the internet looking for pages to add to the search index is sometimes called a robot. The abbreviations bot or web bot is also used. (Source:
Roll fold A folding method. Material is rolled around itself at each fold. (Source:
Roll wrapping A method of parcelling a magazine for mailing. The magazine is rolled and the outer wrapper put round it to avoid folding the magazine before despatch.
Rollout Mailing to an entire list (or the remainder of the list), usually following a test sample of the list has been proved successful.
Roman type Typefaces that are upright, rather than italic.
RON See Run Of Network.
Root Certificate Authority The highest level certificate authority (which see in the hard copy dictionary) in a certificate hierarchy. In the PEM model the root authority is referred to as the Internet PCA Registration Authority (which see along with certificate authority and PEM in the hard copy dictionary). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
ROS See Run Of Site.
Rotary press A printer which uses a cylindrical printing surface.
Rotated Printing sideways on the stationery in laser printing.
Rotogravure Gravure printing on a rotary press. Also known as photogravure.
Rough A sketch showing a proposed design concept. Also known as a scamp or visual.
Router A computer at a junction on the internet that directs data towards its correct destination. Decides which link of the network to send the data based on the IP number of the destination computer.
RSS See Really Simple Syndication.
Run The number of sheets printed at one time, as opposed to the number of finished articles. Thus if a sheet contains four images (4-up) of the same piece, a 200,000 printing will be a 50,000 run. (Source:
Run of category The purchase of a given number of impressions from an ad network on a defined set of websites that have some similarity in their content or in the demographics of their customers. See run of network.
Run Of Network (RON) A system of purchasing advertising space on an online ad network – the advertiser purchases a specific number of ads but cannot determine where on that ad network those ads may appear. It is a cheaper but less targeted online advertising approach than purchasing precise ad placements.
Run of paper Paid-for advertisement space in which the publisher selects the position it might appear in the publication, rather the advertiser dictating a fixed position.
Run Of Site (ROS) An ad buying option in which ad placements may appear on any pages of the target site. (Source: IAB)
Run on A run on in relation to copy is where the copy continues on the same line as opposed to a new line. In printing it relates to the numbers of sheets or items printed over the original request, often quoted in a £ per thousand.
Run-around Type set around a picture or other element of design.
Run-on price The cost of producing additional sheets printed over the original requirement (run-on prices do not include origination or machine make-ready).
S/KEY A one-time password system released and trademarked by Bellcore. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
S/MIME See Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
S/s Copy mark-up instruction denoting same size.
S/WAN A standard developed by RSA Data Security and several firewall vendors to ensure interoperability between competing firewall products. The standard will permit fully encrypted virtual private networks (which see) to operate between firewalls which encrypt at the IP level and which comply with the standard. (See encryption, firewall, and WAN in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
SA Printing abbreviation denoting self-adhesive.
SA Saddle stitching
Saddle stitching A type of binding of a book or magazine with wire staples through the middle fold.
Sales house An organisation which sells advertising on behalf of other media owners. Sales houses typically retain a percentage of the revenue they sell in exchange for their services. These organisations may combine a number of websites together and sell them as different packages to advertisers. (Source:
Sales lead The name and address volunteered by an individual in response to a mailing, advertisement or promotion, in order to receive more information about a product or service.
Sales promotion Any materials or activities designed to support, prompt or create sales.
Salt name Names and addresses inserted into a mailing list also known as decoys or seeds, to ascertain whether proper usage of the list has been maintained, or to measure speed of delivery etc.
Salting The process of placing names into a mailing list, as above.
Sample buyer A person who orders a sample of a product, either for a small charge, or free.
Sample mailing A copy or a specimen mail package.
Sample rate The number of samples of a sound taken per second to capture the event digitally. CD-quality audio is 44,100 samples per second. The more samples taken, the higher the quality.
Sample size The number of observations in an experiment. (Source: Marketing Week)
Sampling method The means of obtaining the sample from the total population.
Sans serif Typefaces which have no serifs, these being the small end tips at the ends of ascenders, descenders and strokes of letters.
SAP AG A large German software engineering company that makes widely used business software. The software itself is often referred to as SAP.
Satellite TV Television programmes delivered directly into homes from a satellite. A satellite dish is required to receive the satellite’s digital signal.
SC Printing abbreviation denoting self-coloured. Particularly paper where the colourising pigment has been introduced in the making and not by overprinting.
Scag To destroy the data on a disk, either by corrupting the file system or by causing media damage. “That last power hit scagged the system disk.” Compare scrog, roach. (Source:
Scalability A scalable solution is one that provides a way of efficiently dealing with a wide range of transaction rates. An e-commerce venture may start out with a small number of users and then attract a rapidly increasing number of users. Scalable designs may employ more powerful processors or additional servers to handle the increased demand. (Source:
Scamp An idea which has been drawn up roughly. Also known as a rough or first visual.
Scanner Machine which scans full-colour copy wrapped around a drum and which reads colour densities to produce separations.
Scatter proof Montage of printing proofs not in position, e.g. several illustrations for a magazine may be grouped on one sheet to allow checking of colour reproduction etc.
Schedule The details of advertising which is proposed, or booked, showing media size of space, dates and costs etc.
Score The crease or indentation which facilitates paper folding. Also as in credit score, the measure of a prospect’s credit worthiness.
Scorecard See Balanced Scorecard.
Screen In traditional print, the dot formation which enables photographs, tints or tones to be reproduced in a printed work. Alternatively, the visual display unit (monitor, TV etc.) that electronically presents information or entertainment.
Screen angles Varied angles of each screen used in colour half-tones to avoid moire patterns and other forms of screen clash. (Source: Marketing Week)
Screen clash Undesirable pattern caused by scanning existing printed matter where the scan picks up the printing dots in the original and causes strange optical results.
Screen printing A printing process whereby ink is forced through fine material, e.g. silk, on which a design (usually a stencil) has been imposed.
Screen reader A device that reads out the navigation options and content on a website.
Screened print A print with a half-tone screen.
Scrip A paper receipt dispensed by a scrip terminal that substitutes for cash in a retail establishment. Usually the scrip must be used at a specific retailer within twenty four hours.
Script A hand writing-style typeface or the text of a commercial for TV or radio.
Script Terminal Similar to a small ATM terminal and used with an ATM or debit card to access an ATM network, a scrip terminal issues scrip which may be used to purchase goods or be exchanged for cash at a specific retailer. Located in stores, scrip terminals are less expensive to install and maintain than an ATM terminal because they do not need to protect cash. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Scrog To corrupt or damage a data structure.
Scrool The log of old messages, available for later perusal or to help one get back in synch with the conversation. It was originally called the `scrool monster’, because an early version of the roundtable software had a bug where it would dump all 8K of scrool on a user’s terminal. (Source:
Scrum A methodology that supports agile software development based on 15-30 day sprints to implement features from a product backlog. ‘Scrum’ refers to a daily project status meeting during the sprint.
SDI See Serial Digital Interface.
SDK See Software Developers’ Kit.
SDSI See Simple Distributed Security Infrastructure.
SDV See Switched Digital Video.
Search engine On the world wide web, a website that catalogues a vast number of web pages and other documents on the internet and provides links to them and descriptions of them for users. The search engine provides a list of hopefully relevant documents and web pages in response to queries by users, usually in the form of words or phrases that indicate the topic the user is interested in. Search engines are often the key element in a portal. How they search can often be important as to the success in finding your site. (Source: Computer Active)
Search Engine Marketing (SEM) The process which aims to get websites listed prominently in search-engine results through search-engine optimisation, sponsored search and paid inclusion.(Source: IAB)
Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) Website textual content for relevant keyword phrases is modified to increase an organisation’s position in what is known as the natural or organic listings on the search engine results pages. Other legitimate SEO techniques include improving accessibility, increasing the number of inbound links and publishing relevant content, in blogs and so on, on social media sites and other public forums.
Search Engine Results Pages (SERPS) The pages generated and displayed by a search engine after a search engine user types in their keyphrase.
Search engine spamming Breaking search engine rules to achieve higher list rankings. Achieved by repeating an important keyphrase many times on the home page using text that it is the same colour as the background of the page.
Search engine submission or registration A search engine is provided with a URL (usually the homepage) for indexing.
Search query Words or phrases input for the search engine to use to access relevant documents.
Seasonal discount A discount given to a customer for buying a product or service in a seller’s specified season. (Source: Computer Active)
Seasonality The influence on response of the time of year – can be either positive or negative.
Seasonality test Mailing at different times of year to monitor any change in response due to seasonal changes.
Second class Postal service that delivers mail less quickly than first-class service.
Second class discount Discount available for pre-sorted mail delivered to the second class discount delivery standard. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Second colour Any colour other than the primary.
Section A folded sheet forming part of a catalogue when folded and trimmed.
Secure container A technology which uses encryption to ensure that a content provider receives payment each time a customer views a document or piece of data.
Secure Courier A protocol developed by Netscape which encrypts portions of online bank card and micropayment transactions in “secure digital envelopes” so that they can be sent by consumers to financial institutions without being understood by intermediaries (eg merchants) or by unauthorized parties. The protocol is based on SSL and provides functionality similar to CyberCash (Source:
Secure Electronic Payment Protocol (SEPP) A MasterCard network payment protocol developed and supported by IBM, Netscape, GTE, and others. (Source:
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) A standard established by MasterCard and Visa for the secure use of credit, debit, and corporate purchasing cards over the internet. Co-developers and supporters are Microsoft, CyberCash, GTE, IBM, and Netscape. Other supporters include RSA Data Security, Terisa Systems, and VeriSign. SET represents an evolution, merging, and replacement of S-HTTP and SSL (which see in the hard copy dictionary). (Source:
Secure servers A web server that can code payment and personal information to protect it from being accessed by a third party. Major security protocols include SSL, SHTTP, PCT and IPSec.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A protocol developed by Netscape for protecting private web communications containing confidential user information such as credit card details. SSL provides data encryption, server authentication, message integrity, and optional client authentication. It uses a private key to encrypt data. Web pages with a URL beginning with “https://” require an SSL connection. The browsers Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL. (Source:
Secure Transaction Channel (STC) A patent-pending technology from V-One corporation which uses an “out of band” end-to-end security method with DES and RSA public key cryptography to conceal and transmit transaction data to credit card processors over the internet. STC reduces the risk of merchant fraud by not allowing the merchant to view in plain text any of the financial data contained in the encrypted envelope sent by the purchaser. The data is decrypted at a decryption server used by the merchant bank or credit card processor. The U.S. Departments of State and Commerce have granted export approval to STC. . (Source:
Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) A specification designed to enable encrypted messages to be exchanged between email applications from different vendors. S/MIME is based on the internet MIME standard (RFC 1521). Some vendors endorsing S/MIME are: Microsoft, Lotus, QUALCOMM, and RSA Data Security. (Source:
Secured Credit Card A pre-paid card that a purchaser can use for online payments. Payment is made upfront for the card which can then be used up to that credit limit. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Security Association (SA) The combination of a policy and a key used to establish a secure and authenticated channel between two hosts. The ISAKMP SA is the shared policy and key used by the negotiating peers in the ISAKMP protocol to protect their communication. (Source:
Security Gateway A system which acts as the communications gateway between external untrusted systems and trusted hosts on their own subnetwork . It provides security services for the trusted hosts when they communicate with external untrusted systems. When a security gateway is providing services on behalf of one or more hosts on a trusted subnet, the security gateway establishes the Security Association on behalf of its trusted host and provides security services between the security gateway and the external systems. In this case, the gateway uses the IP Authentication Header, while all of the systems behind the gateway on the trusted subnet may take advantage of IP Authentication Header services without having to implement them. (Source:
Security Kernel The elements of a computer system that provide its security (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Seed To insert names and addresses into a list as decoys to ensure that it is not misused, or to monitor its use.
Seed names Those names and addresses inserted into a mailing list, for monitoring purposes. See also Salt name.
Segment To divide into specific or identified parts. To divide data on a list into smaller entities. Or the part so identified.
Segmentation The process of division into specific parts. As above.
Seigniorage In economics, the income a government receives from the minting of currency (coins and paper bills) derived from the difference between the cost of materials in the currency and the currency’s face value. US government annual income from seigniorage approaches twenty billion dollars. Digital cash, issued by banks or other parties, may be opposed by governments because it can replace currency and decrease government income from seigniorage. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Selection criteria Particular elements or characteristics that can be used to identify segments within data, e.g. age, sex and job function.
Selective opt-in Offering a range of customer communications preferences available through a customer profile.
Self cover Cover of the same paper as text pages.
Self mailer A promotional leaflet that requires no additional reply vehicle but can be used to return the order.
Self-liquidator Any incentive or premium whose costs (including handling and postage) are covered by a charge to the customer.
Sell-side e-commerce Transactions involved with selling products to an organisation’s customers through distributors as appropriate.
Sell-Side Platform (SSP) A technology platform with the single mission of enabling publishers to manage their ad impression inventory and maximise revenue from digital media. As such they offer an efficient, automated and secure way to tap into the different sources of advertising income that are available, and provide insight into the various revenue streams and audiences.
SEM See Search Engine Marketing.
Semantic web A group of methods and technologies to allow machines to understand the meaning – or ‘semantics’ – of information on the World Wide Web. (Source.
SEO See Search Engine Optimisation.
Separation To print in full colour it is necessary to apply 3 colours: blue, yellow, red plus black. The separation into dots of these colours is done photographically and is called colour separation. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Separation artwork Artwork in which a separate layer for each colour to be printed is created by means of a translucent overlay.
SEPP See Secure Electronic Payment Protocol.
Serial Digital Interface (SDI) A dedicated digital video interface used to carry broadcast quality video content. (Source: IAB)
Serial port A port or interface that can be used for serial communication, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time. Most serial ports have been replaced by USB interfaces.
Series discount A reduction in the cost of space for a number of advertisements purchased at the same time.
Series rate See Series discount.
Serif The small terminal stroke on the end of a main stroke of a letter, which appears on certain typefaces.
SERPS See Search Engine Results Pages.
Server A host computer that provides information to “client” machines. For example, Web servers store WebPages and send them to your browser, and mail servers are used for delivering email (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual )
Server Push The continuous sending of new text, images, and other information from a Web server to a Web browser. Server push uses MIME’s ability to send multiple documents within a single message to compose never ending message customized to an individual user’s workstation. Implementations of server push, such as that from PointCast, are generally referred to as Webcasting or netcasting. See server, Web, browser, and MIME in the hard copy dictionary. (Source: Computer Active)
Service Level Agreement (SLA) Define confirmed standards of availability and performance.
Service mark A name or logo used by a company to identify itself or its services and products.
Session The time spent between a user starting an application, computer or website and logging off or quitting. (Source: IAB)
SET See Secure Electronic Transaction.
Set-off Smudged ink mark on printed sheet.
Setting Short for typesetting.
SGML See Standard Generalised Mark-up Language.
Shared mailing A mailing that promotes the products of two or more companies, whose participants share the costs.
Shared sponsorship More than one advertiser appears on a web page.
Shareware Software packages that you can use free of charge for a trial period. After the trial period you are asked to make a payment. Some packages operate on trust; others have logic built into them to stop them working at the end of the trial period.
Sheet The flat size of cut paper for printing, before it is folded and cut or trimmed. (Source:
Sheet size The size of the sheet for printing.
Sheet-fed The method of feeding individual cut sheets into a printing press as opposed to reel-fed.
Shelflife The saleable life of a material or product.
Shopbot Automated programmes (spiders) that search the web for queried products or services seeking the best price available.
Shopping bot See Shopbot.
Short Message Peer-topeer Protocol (SMPP) Used to exchange SMS messages.
Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) A network switch for routing SMS traffic.
Short Messaging Service (SMS) An open industry standard providing automatic and immediate delivery of text (aka txt) messages between mobile communications devices. See also Multimedia Messaging Service..
Shortcode A four- or five-digit number typically starting with a 6 or 8 (e.g. 86500) which allows customers to interact with a call system.
Shovelware Text, graphics, and images taken from company marketing materials (e.g. printed brochures) and placed on web pages with minimal adaptation to the unique characteristics of the web as a medium.
Show-through Lack of opacity in a sheet of paper allowing the printed image on one side of a page to be visible from the reverse side. (Source:
Showstopper A computer bug that prevents further activity on the computer until fixed.
Shufflecast (aka ‘Staggercast’) An additional TV channel showing identical content to its parent channel at a later time (usually +1 hour).
Side stitch A method of binding by driving wire staples through the margin of a book from front to back while in a closed position. Also known as ‘flat stitch’, ‘stab stitch’ and ‘side stab’.
Sig A .sig or ‘signature file’ tells people at the bottom of an email message who you are. It can be a handy way of spreading your company slogan, contact details, web address etc.
Signalling System 7 A worldwide standard for telecommunications hardware to talk to each other.
Signature A section of a catalogue or book to be perfect bound (Source:
Significance A result, to be significant, must demonstrate meaningful valid differences.
Silk screen printing A printing method where ink is forced through a fine material screen onto which a stencil has been placed.
SIM See Subscriber Identity Module.
Simple Distributed Security Infrastructure (SDSI) An alternative to the X.509 standard for digital certificates which uses a simple human-understandable language. In SDSI language certificates are signed statements and the digital signature is appended to the list that forms the statement. SDSI is being developed by Microsoft and MIT. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) The internet standard protocol used for transferring electronic messages from one computer to another.
Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) A less cumbersome alternative to the X.509 standard for digital certificates proposed by the IETF. (Source:
Simplex A laser printing term meaning printed on one side only. Duplex is the term for printing both sides.
Simulcast Watching an existing TV service over the internet at the same time as normal transmission. (Source:
Single colour Printing in only one colour.
Single Mast Antenna TV (SMATV) A form of TV distribution whereby several households are cabled to one communal dish, e.g. in blocks of flats. Applies to c.70,000 homes in the UK.
Single view of the customer All staff, regardless of the channel used, can access comprehensive, consistent, up-to-date information about a customer.
Site analytics The reporting and analysis of website activity – in particular user behaviour on the site. All websites have a weblog which can be used for this purpose, but other third party software is available for a more sophisticated service. (Source: IAB)
Site map A graphical or text depiction of the relationship between different groups of content on a website.
Six sigma method A quality management program to achieve ‘six sigma’ levels of quality. It was pioneered at Motorola in the mid-1980s by Bob Galvin.
SKEME A key exchange technique which provides anonymity, reputability, and quick key refreshment. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Skin A change of the user interface that can be used to personalise programmes. This change often is reflected in the graphic or sound. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
SKU Stock Keeping Unit.
Skyscraper In online advertising, a large, tall rectangular ad (banner) that is significantly taller than a typical 120 x 240 pixel vertical banner; often found running down the side of a page in a fixed placement.
Skyscraper A long, vertical, online advert usually found running down the side of a page in a fixed placement.
SLA See Service Level Agreement.
Sleeper An unidentifiable and indistinguishable name and address placed as a ‘seed’ on a list. (Source: Marketing Week)
Slide binder A method of binding loose sheets together by sliding on a retaining holder.
Slitter A sharp-edged wheel attached to finishing machinery which slits the paper fed into it, e.g. a printed A3 page may be folded and one edge slit to produce separate sheets.
Small Office Home Office (SOHO) Also referred to as a virtual office. A hi-tech reworking of homeworking, with added attributes of bridging together eco-friendly, family-friendly with virtual communication.
Small order Individual sales or orders that are so small as to be unprofitable relative to the cost of fulfilling them. (Source: Marketing Week)
SMART Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Time-oriented objectives.
Smart card A credit card-sized card with embedded microchip which allows secure payments and personal information to be exchanged quickly and securely.
Smart Energy Network Alliance A partnership, founded by Novell and United Inc. and open to other companies, to develop and market applications that allow users to optimise their energy usage in real time. See NEST. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
Smartcard Electronic key inserted into, for example, a TV set-top decoder to unscramble a protected channel.
SMATV See Single Mast Antenna TV.
SME Small to medium sized enterprise, defined by European Union as employing less than 250 people, having a turnover of less than €50 million (or a balance sheet total of less than €43 million) and not more than 25% owned by a non-SME.
SMPP See Short Message Peer-to-peer Protocol.
SMS See Short Messaging Service.
SMSC See Short Message Service Centre.
SMTP See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
Snark A system failure. When a user’s process bombed, the operator would get the message “Help, Help, Snark in MTS!” 2. More generally, any kind of unexplained or threatening event on a computer (especially if it might be a boojum). Often used to refer to an event or a log file entry that might indicate an attempted security violation. See snivitz. 3. UUCP name of, home site of the Jargon File versions from 2.*.* on (i.e., this lexicon). (Source:
Sneakernet Term used (generally with ironic intent) for transfer of electronic information by physically carrying tape, disks, or some other media from one machine to another. “Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon filled with magtape, or a 747 filled with CD-ROMs.” Also called `Tennis-Net’, `Armpit-Net’, `Floppy-Net’ or `Shoenet’; in the 1990s, `Nike network’ after a well-known sneaker brand. (Source:
Sniffer software Identifies the capabilities of the user’s browser and therefore can determine compatibility with ad formats and serve them an advert they will be able to see/fully interact with (eg: GIF, Flash etc.). (Source:
Social app Social software applications include communication tools and interactive tools often based on the internet. Communication tools typically handle the capturing, storing and presentation of communication, usually written but increasingly including audio and video as well. Interactive tools handle mediated interactions between a pair or group of users. They focus on establishing and maintaining a connection among users, facilitating the mechanics of conversation and talk. (Source.
Social Engineering Within the context of computer security, the deception of a person or persons in order to obtain information one is not authorized to have (eg a password). Source:
Social grades A definition of social class with lifestyle connotations that follows a coding pattern from A – E. Generally carried out at household level.
Social media The creation of useful, valuable and relevant content and applications by brands, or by consumers with specific reference to brands, that can be shared online, facilitated by web 2.0 technology.
Social media listening The process of using monitoring tools to review mentions of a brand and related keywords within social networks and other online sites. (Dave Chaffey)
Social-Local-Mobile (SoLoMo) Describes the convergence of social, local, and mobile media. Social refers to the people connectivity aspect. Local refers to the ability of determining location. And mobile refers to media portability. An example of SoLoMo media convergence would a smart phone app that determines your location, suggests businesses close by, can provide ratings/reviews of that business, and then allow you to post your own ratings/reviews and pictures on a social networking site. (Source:
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) A non-profit organization that maintains a network for the international exchange of payment instructions between banks and other institutions. Payments between SWIFT member banks are handled over domestic funds clearing systems such as Fed Wire (which see in the hard copy dictionary). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
SOCKS A proxy server software package that does not support caching but is relatively easy to install. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Soft bounce An email message that has been returned as temporarily undeliverable or for an unspecified reason. Try re-mailing to see if it eventually gets through (e.g. once a crashed server has been restored)
Software Developers Kit (SDK) Software that can be used to make one program compatible with another. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
SOHO See Small Office Home Office.
Solo A one-off mailing normally promoting a particular offer. Often solo mailings are for a strong promotional offer to build lists of customers. (Source:
SoLoMo See Social-Local-Mobile.
Solus email advertising Where the body of the email is determined by the advertiser, including both text and graphical elements, and is sent on their behalf by an email list manager/owner. Solus email advertising is conducted on an opt-in basis where the recipient has given their consent to receive communications. (Source:
Solus mailing A single mailing from which the whole sales objective must be achieved.
Solus position The position of an advertisement on a page where there is no other advertising matter.
Sort A computer program which rearranges a file into a sequence logically, according to a given parameter.
Source code A unique identification distinguishing one list or media source from another.
Space buyer A person who has made at least his initial purchase by responding to an advertisement in a magazine or newspaper. Or the buyer of media space for an advertiser.
SPAM The use of electronic communications media to send unsolicited messages in bulk or indiscriminately and, in many countries, in breach of legislation or codes of practice. Apocryphally taking its name from the Monty Python sketch of same name.
Spam email Unsolicited mass emailing. It might be very tempting to use the power of the internet to hit 100,000 email addresses with a mailshot about your product, but spamming is generally frowned upon by internet users. It will probably do your company more harm than good, annoying potential customers and damaging your online reputation. (Source: Sometimes can also be referred to more generically as ‘junk email’.
Special position A place in a publication which is pre-designated by the advertiser for his advertisement (as opposed to run-of-paper). (Source:
Specific promotion The website URL is promoted in offline communications, but the proposition is not emphasised.
Spider A software program typically employed by search engines to continuously crawl and automatically survey the web in order to expand the search engine’s database of web pages and websites that form the search results page. The web pages are indexed against keywords.
Spine glued A way of binding a printed product (usually less than 24pp) by gluing the spine during the printing process so that no subsequent binding is required. Alternative to saddle stitching. (Source:
Spinwriter Machine which produces high quality output similar to an electric typewriter. It can be sprocket of sheet fed. The typefaces can be changed by changing a spider web type wheel. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Spiral binding A method of binding, whereby loose pages have a series of holes punched on one edge, into which a binding coil is inserted.
SPKI See Simple Public Key Infrastructure
Splash screen An introduction screen often containing branding, images or animation that has to be viewed or skipped before viewing website content.
Split run A test where one element of a promotion is tested against another or a control using alternate copies of the same issue of the same publication. These are also known as A/B splits in the press, and a ‘head to head’ in direct mail. (Source:
Spoilage The waste incurred during either the printing, mailing or finishing processes.
Sponsorship Advertiser sponsorships of targeted content areas (e.g. entire website, site area, enewsletter or an event) for promotional purposes. (Source:
Spool A holding area for files prior to being processed, e.g. print spooler where files are held in queue prior to printing.
Spot A booking or transmission of a television or radio commercial. (Source:
Spot colour Single additional colour printed in a block working.
Spot gumming The application of a spot of adhesive which lightly attaches one piece of material to another, often in order to facilitate its later removal.
Spot rate A rate quoted for an individual booking, as opposed to packages of airtime in TV or radio scheduling.
Spread Facing pages across which matter is continued as if the pages were one. Also known as a double-page spread or DPS.
Sprocket holes The holes on either side of continuous stationery used to position for printing and removed normally at bursting and trimming stage.
SQL See Structured Query Language
SS7 See Signalling System 7.
SSL See Secure Sockets Layer.
SSP See Sell-Side Platform.
Stab stitch See side stitch.
Staggercast See ‘Shufflecast’.
Stamping A method of binding, where an impression is made into a book cover, which is often filled with metal foil or another similar material. Or the affixing of stamps to an item to be mailed.
Stamping die A plate used for blocking or stamping an impression into paper or board.
Standalone A self-contained system of hardware which needs no other machine assistance to function. Also direct marketing which functions without the support of other media or distribution channels.
Standard Generalised Mark-up Language (SGML) An international standard published in 1986, this mark-up language prescribes a standard format for embedding descriptive mark-up within a document using coherent and unambiguous syntax.
Standards Computer and communication standards serve two important functions in computing: to ensure that a product is fit for its intended purpose and to ensure interoperability between different components. (Source:
Statement stuffer An advertisement which is included in a statement mailing. (Source:
Stations Points on an enclosing machine, e.g. a four-station machine can enclose four items into an envelope.
Statistically significant A statistical result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, i.e. there is statistical evidence that there is a difference; it does not mean the difference is necessarily large.
STC See Secure Transaction Channel.
Stereotype A duplicate printing plate that is cast in a mould taken from the original. This is sometimes abbreviated to stereo. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Stet A proof reader’s instruction which means to ignore marked correction; i.e. let the text stand as it was originally.
Stickiness Measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining its users. Usually measured by the duration of the visit. (
Stitch To sew, or bind, by means of either a thread or staple. (Source:
Stock The liquid pulp prior to being made into paper, another word for paper.
Stock item In printing and stationery, off-the-shelf supplies of envelopes.
Stomp on To inadvertently overwrite something important, usually automatically. “All the work I did this weekend got stomped on last night by the nightly server script.” Compare scribble, mangle, trash, scrog, roach. (Source:
Stoppage Extreme lossage that renders something (usually something vital) completely unusable. (Source:
Store traffic EThe number of people who pass through a retail store. (Source:
Storyboarding The use of static drawings or screenshots of the different parts of a website to review the design concept with user groups.
Strategic marketing The process of setting marketing goals, selecting target markets and designing a marketing promotional and sales mix to achieve the set goals.
Strategic planning A management task to align resources and strengths to match the market opportunities available.
Strategy An underlying plan or philosophy to achieve given goals.
Streaming (media) Streaming audio or video is a technique which allows an audio signal to be listened to and a video signal to played at the same time via a website – as opposed to the user having to wait for the whole file to download before it starts playing. Streaming requires that the signal is transmitted as fast as you view it. To achieve this, quality is sacrificed when a slow connection is being used. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006).
Strip gumming The applying of a strip of gum to a form for later use by recipient. (Source: Marketing Week)
Stuffer Advertising material which is placed in other media, e.g. as inserts in a publication, in a shared mailing with other products and with an invoice or product despatch. Also known as a ‘piggy-back’ because it rides another medium.
Style-of-the-house The typographic and linguistic rules of a publishing house. A company can also be said to have a house style, which is the consistent image it projects to the marketplace.
Styling The mailing industry description of a designation, title or position above the address, e.g. The Managing Director.
Sub-categories (aka Sub-Demographic Groups) The division of the main category audience or population (of individuals/adults/men/ women/children/housewives), usually by age and/or social grade.
Subhead Copy set apart from the body of the text, under the main headline, usually to explain or add detail to the headline’s statement.
Subject access request A request by a data subject to view personal data from an organisation.
Subnetwork An IP network in which a portion of the IP address is identical across all the devices connected to the subnetwork. A subnetwork is usually separated from other networks by a router or firewall. A trusted subnetwork contains hosts and routers that trust each other not to attack each other’s security and trust that the underlying communications channel (eg, an Ethernet) isn’t being attacked. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Subscriber A person who has placed an order to receive a publication or other series of products on a regular basis. (Source:
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) A removable part (card) of the mobile phone hardware that identifies the subscriber.
Subscriber list A list of people who have ordered and are currently receiving a publication on a regular paid-for basis.
Subscription series The continuity program in which the buyer agrees to acquire the products in a series at regular intervals.
Subscription service An online service, website, or other source of information and services which offers ongoing unrestricted access and use for a period of time for a fixed fee without regard to which particular information or services are utilised.
Sun Sun Microsystems. An early computer company born from the Stanford University Network and UC Berkeley . (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Sunspots 1. Notional cause of an odd error. “Why did the program suddenly turn the screen blue?” “Sunspots, I guess.” 2. Also the cause of bit rot — from the myth that sunspots will increase cosmic rays, which can flip single bits in memory. See also phase of the moon. (Source:
Superstitial A form of rich media advertising which allows a TV-like experience on the web. It is fully pre-cached before playing. (Source: See also Rich media, Cache memory.
Supplement An extra illustration or piece of copy put into a newspaper or magazine, in order to fill up empty space or an additional part/section, normally as a separate entity, to a publication.
Supplemental index Secondary database of lower relevance web pages, as measured by Google’s PageRank search algorithm. Google integrates pages from its main index and supplemental index in its search results pages, giving preference to nonsupplemental pages.
Suppression The removal of name and address records during computer processing in order to avoid inaccuracies such as mailing previously mailed prospects, mailing prospects twice, mailing records which are out-of-date or those who have requested omission. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Suppression file The file containing those name and address records that are not to be mailed.
Surf [from the `surf' idiom for rapidly flipping TV channels] To traverse the internet in search of interesting stuff, used especially if one is doing so with a world wide web browser. It is also common to speak of `surfing in’ to a particular resource.
Swash letter An ornamental character, usually an italic capital, used for emphasis. (Source:
Swatch A set of colour specimens printed on paper or a set of material samples.
Sweepstake Term used by some advertisers to denote prize draw by lottery.
Switched Digital Video (SDV) Switched digital video. Network technology which carries digital video signals over fiber optic cables and is intended to provide the backbone for delivering services such as Video on Demand to households. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Synchronous A regular rate of data transfer.
Syndicated mailings Where two or more companies use the same mailing or catalogue to promote their products or services.
Synthetic papers Synthetic materials that have similar properties to paper, and can be used in printing.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Systems Network Architecture. Networking protocol developed by IBM. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
T-commerce Electronic commerce on interactive television. (Source:
Tab-pull envelope An envelope which is opened by means of pulling a tab which tears open along perforation lines.
Table look-up A table of data that can be accessed to provide additional information to a set of basic information enabling a more personalised presentation of the original data, e.g. personalised costs for motor insurance relating to area and age.
Tabloid A newspaper with small pages, e.g. Daily Mirror (half the size of a broadsheet).
TACACS+ A standard which defines the interfaces between a network access server, such as a firewall or a remote access server and a system which provides authentication, authorization, and accounting services. A TACACS+ server is a system that provides these services and supports the standard TACACS+ interfaces. TACACS+ was largely developed by Cisco Systems. Also see an alternative to TACACS+ called RADIUS. (See firewall, authentication, and authorization in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Tacit knowledge Mainly intangible knowledge that is typically intuitive and difficult to record.
Tag A formatting instruction used to mark the beginning and end of a word or structure. For example HTML tags.
Tag cloud (aka word cloud) Visual depiction or textual list of hyperlinked tags (keywords, key phrases) describing content of a website. Tags are listed alphabetically and weighted (using font size and colour) by frequency or popularity.
Take one Leaflets displayed at point-of-sale dispensers placed in areas where potential customers gather.
Tally key Equals media code, a means of identifying from whence response came using numbered or alpha references.
Tandem working Using more than one printing machine in-line.
Tape conversion The change of data from one format to another.
Tape density The number of bytes that are included in each unit of magnetic tape.
Tape dump A printout of typical record data held on magnetic tape, in order to check for its suitability, readability, format, correctness and accuracy.
Tape editing The alteration of data held on a magnetic tape, which usually necessitates a second or next-generation such tape being created.
Tape format layout A map of the specific or relative location of data within each record.
Tape merging The combination of a master tape with a correction tape to produce a third, errorfree tape, or new master.
Target audience Those broad segments of a population identified by a marketer as suited or suitable business prospects.
Target Group Index (TGI) An aid to media and sales planning. A market research service which provides information on the purchasing and other behaviour of individual consumer segments.
Target keyphrases in SEO The phrase(s) that a particular page is being optimized for or that a landing page has Google Adwords or other paid-search as the destination URL.
Target market Those people who are most likely to buy a product or service.
Targeting The process of identifying audiences, markets, specific sections or clusters and also individuals that match known characteristics (especially propensity to buy); and using this information in the design and content of marketing campaigns that reach and appeal to these certain classes or types of customers.
TCP/IP See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
TDD See Time Division Duplex.
TDMA See Time Division Multiple Access.
Tear test A test which determines either the strength or the grain direction in paper, by assessing its ease of tearing.
Teaser A device intended to entice a reader to open an envelope and read its contents.
Technical Advisory Committee to Develop a Federal Information Processing Standard for Federal Key Infrastructure (TACDFIPSFKMI) Technical Advisory Committee to Develop a Federal Information Processing Standard for Federal Key Infrastructure. A committee established by the Secretary of Commerce to develop guidelines and technical standards for key recovery. The committee consists of twenty-four private sector cryptography experts and is assisted by government advisors. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Teaser A set of internet protocols that enable computers to communicate with each other. Can be used as slang and a derogatory term for the highly technical language used in the computer world that is not generally understood by people.
Tele-answering A professional answering service which is constantly manned and undertakes work for clients. (Source:
Tele-sales The department or group responsible for telephone selling. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Telemarketing The use of the telephone as a marketing medium for any activity such as list building, lead generation or selling.
Telephone Banking The provision of virtually all banking services over the phone. First Direct, a division of Midland Bank in the UK, is the world’s leading telephone only bank with over 500,000 customers and no branches. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Telephone response The method of responding to a direct marketing solicitation by telephone, rather than by mail or other method.
Telephone survey A research method for collecting information by interviewing people over the telephone.
Teletext System where data messages and graphics can be received and decoded by a TV set generally allowing the viewer to choose pages with a keypad.
Television Rating(s) (TVR, GRP) Currency of the television industry, which measures popularity of a programme, daypart, commercial break or advertisement by comparing the audience to the population as a whole. 1TVR = 1% of the potential audience (universe).
Telnet The virtual haze of acronyms, buzzwords and jargon that surrounds new media. Recently the trend has been to cut the techno but increase the babble. Hence talk of “V34″, “megabits”, and “TCP/IP” has been replaced with “community”, “stickiness” and “personalisation”. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Temporary or session cookies Cookies used for tracking within pages of a session such as on an e-commerce site.
Tenancy The ‘renting’ out of a section of a website by another brand which pays commission to this media owner for any revenue generated from this space. (Source:
Tense An internet service that allows you to log into a remote computer. (Source: Marketing Week)
Terabyte Of programs, very clever and efficient. A tense piece of code often got that way because it was highly bummed, but sometimes it was just based on a great idea. A comment in a clever routine by Mike Kazar, once a grad-student hacker at CMU: “This routine is so tense it will bring tears to your eyes.” A tense programmer is one who produces tense code. (Source:
Terminal Equipment for entering data into a mainframe computer and for viewing data. This usually refers to a keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). If the processing takes place entirely in the mainframe, the unit may be referred to as a “dumb terminal”. (Source:
Terrestrial viewing Analogue terrestrial viewing. In the UK, this includes: BBC1, BBC2, ITV (including GMTV), Channel 4 (including S4C) and Channel 5.
Test A trial of two or more variants (lists, packages, offers, prices etc.). (Source:
Test market A defined area which has characteristics representative of the entire market, which make it suitable for testing a product or campaign.
Test package A mailing package used in a test.
Test panel A term given to the group of selected names used in testing or research.
Test tape A selection of records within a mailing list which enables a list user or bureau to reformat or convert the list to a more efficient form for the user, or to prove the feasibility of the required future function.
Testimonial A favourable comment made by a customer or a known personality. Used to reassure the reader or to add emphasis or credibility to the product or proposition.
Text ad A static appended text attached to an advertisement.
Text pages The principal matter in a book or publication, as opposed to the index or other adjuncts.
Text paper Good quality paper for printed publicity work. Or the body of a book, rather than its cover.
TGI See Target Group Index.
Thank you letter Acknowledgement letter following a response, sale or donation.
The Tarzan Problem 1000 gigabytes. The purists will tell you that it is actually the binary equivalent which is 1024 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024! (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Third generation Phototypesetting equipment which uses cathode ray tubes to generate the typographical images. (Source:
Third Generation mobile telecommunications technology See 3G.
Third-party ad management A service to advertisers that manages the buying and placement of advertisements on the web and the analysis of the ad’s effectiveness. Also see ad management service bureau.
Third-party ad serving The technology used to deliver creative assets from one adserver into another, allowing advertisers to track the performance of the campaigns and recording impressions and clicks amongst other campaign metrics.
Third-party letter A letter which is signed by someone other than the mailer or company employee, endorsing the subject of the promotion. Frequently used for mailings to the membership or customer list of the third party.
Third-party processor A company acting on behalf on another company in the processing of financial transactions or services.
Thread In a newsgroup, a thread is a set of messages on the same topic.
Throat The orifice of an envelope, bag, etc. is called the ‘throat’ or ‘neck’. (Source:
Throughput The amount of data transmitted through internet connectors in response to a given request. (Source:
Thumbnails Small sketches, graphic impressions or images, often used to represent and link to larger or higher resolution images.
Tie-breaker A device used in competitions to ensure that only a certain number of people win prizes. This usually involves a quasi-skill activity, e.g. composing a slogan, completing a sentence, or demonstrating knowledge about a product.
Tiered Service A combination of offerings which are priced at various levels. For example categories of information on a Web site may range from free to expensive depending on their value, timeliness, uniqueness, or other market factors. See subscription service and registration service. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Time buyer A purchaser of air time for advertising.
Time close A time-limited offer that helps expedite and increase response.
Time Division Duplex (TDD) As well as Wideband-CDMA, the UMTS mobile phone standard IMT-2000 also provides TD-CDMA (Time Division – Code Division Multiple Access) as an additional transmission method. This TD-CDMA method is also called TDD (Time Division Duplex) and together with W-CDMA is to be used in Europe, especially in unpaired frequency bands of the UMTS spectrum. It is particularly suited to transmitting high data rates with asymmetric applications and low mobility requirements (Source:
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Divides cellular channels into three time slots, increasing data capacity. This lets multiple users or conversations be carried on the same channel.
Time limit The date on which an offer expires. Also closing date. (Source:
Timing Attack An attempt to break a cipher by measuring the time a computer takes to perform cryptographic operations. (See cipher in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Tint A term used in printing to denote a shaded area of colour. Created by screening the colour to produce the relevant level of colour required and normally expressed as a percentage of the colour.
Tip-in An insert which is placed loose between the pages of a publication.
Tip-on An item glued to a printed piece.
Tipping point Using the science of social epidemics explains principles that underpin the rapid spread of ideas, products and behaviours through a population.
Title addressing A form of addressing on a direct mail letter in which a person uses a job title (or styling), rather than a name.
Title page The page of a publication which carries the title and often the author’s and publisher’s names.
Titling Type fount (font) in full-faced capital letters.
TiVo A company product and service which acts as a 24-hour VCR, allowing impulsive playback of broadcast programmes.
Toast Hardware that is perfectly functional but far enough behind the state of the art to have been superseded by new products, presumably with sufficient improvement in bang-per-buck that the old stuff is starting to look a bit like a dinosaur. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Tone Colour variation or shades of grey as in a photograph. (Source:
Topping and tailing Handwritten salutations and signatures applied to typed letters.
Touchpoint See Customer touchpoints.
Track To follow the subsequent transactions of a new customer after their first purchase.
Tracking 1. Grouping colours of similar values in the same printing area of a sheet web to ensure the most consistent result when reprinted. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Trade Point Engine An initiative by the United Nations to encourage the use of EDI between business partners dispersed around the globe. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Trade-up premium Device to get people to trade up by providing a more expensive premium for a higher level of spend.
Trademark An image used by companies to identify their goods from others.
Traffic The number of visitors who visit a website. In network technology, traffic is usually measured in bits per second or packets per second.
Traffic builder Mail that directs the recipient to a store to purchase goods.
Trailer record A special record which summarises pertinent data about a group of records.
Trannie, tranny Short for transparency, meaning film that can be used to make prints or from which colour separations can be made.
Transaction A unit of interaction with a DBMS (database management system) or similar system. It must be treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions.
Transaction and Switching and Transport Services (TSTS) A uniform set of transaction processing communications protocols using virtual private lines developed by Bell Communications Research. (Source:
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) The wide-area-networking protocol that makes the internet work.
Transponder A single broadcast stream on satellite.
Trapping Reproduction house term for the way in which ink is controlled on overlapping areas of colour.
Travel and Entertainment Card A credit card, such as American Express or Diner’s Club, which is oriented to business users, generally charges a higher annual fee than a bank card and provides a substantially higher credit limit. Though T&E cards earn less interest for their issuers than do bank cards they are generally more profitable because average transaction amounts are higher and credit losses are lower. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Trend analysis Study of previous trends in the market and using them to predict future trends.
Trial buyer A person who buys a short-term supply of a product, or who buys a product with the understanding that it can be used or examined and be returned or paid for after a given period.
Trial close A technique used in copy in which the writer asks for the order, and points the reader to completing the order form early in the sales copy. This technique is sometimes used on every page of a direct mail letter.
Trial subscription A method of selling newspapers or magazines enabling readers to see a representative number of issues at a free or lower introductory rate before deciding whether or not to become a regular subscriber.
Trim The area which, after printing, is cut off as waste around the finished paper size. This area allows for bleed and grip etc.
Trojan horse Generally refers to the number of visitors a site receives. Since that’s a number that can be tracked in many different ways, site marketers usually choose to put their best stat forward (page views, visitors, impressions or hits).
Troll In internet slang, a troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by trying to start arguments and upset people. They may do this by posting deliberately inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community, such as a forum, chat room, or blog, with the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion. (Source:
Tron [coined by MIT-hacker-turned-NSA-spook Dan Edwards] A malicious, securitybreaking program that is disguised as something benign, such as a directory lister, archiver, game, or (in one notorious 1990 case on the Mac) a program to find and destroy viruses! (Source:
Trust Technology Assessment Program (TTAP) A joint effort of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Security Agency (NSA) to extend to the private sector standards supported by both for unclassified but sensitive systems. (Source:
Trusted Feeds An automated method for putting content into a search engine index in a fixed format.
TSTS See Transaction and Switching and Transport Services.
TTAP See Trust Technology Assessment Program.
Tube cards Advertisements which are displayed in carriages on the Underground system. (Source:
Tunneling An architecture which enables the point-to-point transmission of electronic data in a format different from the format in which it originated and was ultimately received. Tunneling can be used to send non-IP protocols (eg IPX, AppleTalk) over an IP network such as the internet. It can also be used to transmit unencrypted data over the transmission media in encrypted format without requiring encryption by the host or application at either end. The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol encapsulates the Point-to-Point Protocol for control purposes. (See IP, Internet, encryption, host, application, Point-to-Point Protocol, and encapsulation in the hard copy dictionary.) (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
TV-on-demand (TVOD) Facility to supply programmes, films or other content to viewers on request.
TVOD See TV-on-demand.
TVR See Television rating(s).
Two stage See 2-stage.
Type Abbreviation for typeface. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Type area The area occupied by text on a page, or available for text.
Type mark-up Instructions marked by a typographer which indicate size and typeface etc. Also known as type specification.
Typeface A specifically designated style of type, e.g., Helvetica and Times etc.
Typesetting The assembly of printing text and line matter by means of hand picking, keyboarding or casting or photo setting.
Typo(s) See Typographical errors. Also known as ‘littorals’. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Typographic errors Sometimes shortened to typos. Typesetting errors in copy caused or repeated in the assembly to type.
Typography The art, appearance and general design of printed matter using type
UBE See Unsolicilted Bulk Email.
UCEM Unsolicited commercial email. The technician’s label for SPAM.
UDP See User Datagram Protocol.
UGC See User Generated Content.
UMTS See Universal Mobile Telecommunications System.
UNCID See Uniform Rules of Conduct for Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission.
Underkill When only those names that are positively identified as being duplicates are extracted from a list, leaving possible duplicates within the final selection.
Underlay An effect laid under artwork, photograph or illustration, e.g. a colour, tone or pattern. The base artwork on which overlays are affixed.
Unders Copies printed less than the specified print run.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Most often referring to the web address of a particular website, e.g. A URL is the location and access method of a resource on the internet. It identifies a particular internet resource, for example a web page, a library catalogue, an image or a text file.
Uniform Rules of Conduct for Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission (UNCID) A set of voluntary guidelines published by the International Chamber of Commerce for the use of EDI and particularly EDIFACT (which see in the hard copy dictionary). (Source:
Unique names Remaining names within a file after the deduplication processing.
Unique Selling Proposition (USP) The single most saleable feature of a product used in advertising to distinguish a particular product benefit/feature from competitive offers.
Unique users Number of different individuals who visit a site within a specific time period.
Unique visitor An individual who views a website during a specified period of time (e.g. a day, a month).
Unit pricing A standardisation of prices shown by showing a specific price for a set weight which enables a direct price comparison.
Universal advertising package A set of online advertising formats that are standardised placements as defined by the Internet Advertising Bureau.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Collective term for the third-generation mobile phone network (3G) that works with the IMT-2000 radio standard. UMTS offers comprehensive voice and multimedia services to mobile customers by providing very high data rates and functionality such as data streaming. 3G phones are backward compatible and can access all the services that 2 and 2.5G phones can, except that in this case, data can be transferred a lot quicker. (Source:
Universal player Is a platform agnostic media player that will allow video and audio to be played on any hardware/software configuration from a single source file.
Universe The total quantity of a complete selection of mailing lists. Also the total quantity of a market. (Source:
Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE) A widespread, more formal term for email spam. Compare UCE. The UBE term recognizes that spam is uttered by nonprofit and advocacy groups whose motives are not commercial. (Source:
Unsubscribe An option to opt out from an email newsletter or discussion group.
Up-market A description given to a product, generally of high quality and expensively priced, that appeals to those in the higher income or status groups. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
Upgrading Those techniques to sell a more expensive product or to sell further products to existing customers. (Source:
Upload Send a file from computer (e.g. to update a website).
Upper/lower case Typographical terms used to distinguish between CAPITAL LETTERS (upper) and normal letters (lower).
URL See Uniform Resource Locator.
URL strategy A defined approach to how content is labelled through placing it in different directories/folders with distinct web addresses.
Usability An approach to website design intended to enable the completion of user tasks.
Usability expert review A review conducted by an expert who understands the principles of usability, including heuristics.
Usability/user testing Representative users are observed performing representative tasks using a system.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Unlike TCP, UDP does not check that all the data has been delivered. It is, for example, used for conversations over the internet where: 1) the human brain will cope with a certain amount of loss of speech; 2) ask the speaker to repeat if he she doesn’t understand. (Source:
User Generated Content (UGC) Online content created by website users rather than media owners or publishers – either through reviews, blogging, podcasting or posting comments, pictures or video clips. Sites that encourage user generated content include YouTube, Wikipedia and Flickr.
User-centric measurement Web audience measurement based on the behaviour of a sample of web users. (Source:
User-centric string A field in the server log file which identifies the specific browser software and computer operating system making the request. (Source:
USMARC A machine-readable cataloguing record used by libraries. With millions of documents already indexed, a simplified version of USMARC is a candidate to become the dominant approach to metadata on the internet. (Source:
USP See Unique Selling Proposition.
Value network management The process of effectively deciding what to outsource in a constraint-based, real-time environment based on fluctuation. (Source: M. Deise et al)
Value-Added Network (VAN) Enables exchanges of information electronically between subscribers and their trading partners by allowing limited access to a private network.
Value-Added Reseller (VAR) An agent or business that adds its own ‘value,’ or application, to an existing product, and resells the resulting enhanced product as a package.
VAN See Value-Added Network.
VAR See Value-Added Reseller.
Variable cost A cost that varies in accordance with the number of units sold or produced. (Source:
Variable field A method of conserving space on magnetic tape or disk. List information is assigned specific sequence, but not without specific positions to its layout or format.
Variable format A name and address or file layout on computer which has no fixed position allocated for various pieces of information. Identification of specific parts of the information are normally done by indicators. Often used where space is a problem on disk or computer tape. Also known as “floating format”. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Variable space Space inserted between words in order to create equal width lines of type.
Variance The relative importance or priority of differing market factors, determined by a statistical process.
Varnishing The applying of a clear lacquer to printed products, normally on press, to give a glossy, shiny finish.
VDU/VDT Short for visual display unit/terminal. A device which displays information from the computer and commands from a keyboard on a screen. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Verification Punching information twice and then comparing outputs to see if there is any difference which is then checked against original data.
Vertical market A market confined to specific industries or segments – i.e. light engineering or farming – as distinct from horizontal markets such as chief executives or business travellers who will be found right across the vertical markets.
Very Small Aperture Satellite Antenna (VSAT) Very small aperture satellite antenna. Earth-based satellite antennas generally less than 24 inches in diameter which are relatively inexpensive and are widely used by retailers for communicating credit card verification and other information to company headquarters. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Video On Demand (VOD) Services allow viewers to select a programme from a menu and watch it immediately. Utilises broadband technology via the telephone or cable networks for delivery. Also see Near Video On Demand (NVOD).
Viewdata A system linking a computer to a TV and enables information to be displayed, e.g. Teletext.
Vignette Half-tone fading out around its edges.
VIP Vertical Industry Portal; see Vortal.
Viral marketing Using powerful offers, striking, valuable and/or entertaining content to stimulate people to pass-long and share the message. This online word of mouth approach can enable brands to spread messages through social networks, emails, blogs etc. to reach large audiences rapidly and cost-effectively. Can be used to build response, sales, awareness and PR.
Virtual Not real. The term virtual is popular among computer scientists and is used in a wide variety of situations. In general, it distinguishes something that is merely conceptual from something that has physical reality.
Virtual bank A bank that serves consumers over the internet and through automated teller machines without establishing branch banks or any walk-in banking facilities. See bank and automated teller machine in the hard copy dictionary. (Source:
Virtual Mobile Network Operator (VMNO) A company that uses the infrastructure of an existing (licence-owning) telecoms network operator. Tesco and Virgin are two of the largest VMNOs in the UK.
Virtual POP A point of presence that supports an Internet Service Provider’s customers but is actually provided by a Network Service Provider. The ISP contracts with the NSP to provide the POP. (Source:
Virtual Private Internet (VPI) A creation of TradeWave Corporation which sets up a private network running over the internet by incorporating a security system that recognizes only a given company’s offices and personnel as being on the network. VPI’s can be extended to selected customers and suppliers. A VPI is less expensive to set up and operate than a private wide area network (WAN) or, for EDI, a value added network (VAN), but does not provide the audit trail and management information provided by a WAN or VAN. (Source:
Virtual Private Line (VPL) A telephone service appearing as a direct line to the customer but is actually a joint line to which the company switches the traffic.
Virtual Private Network (VPN) A private network using the internet, and which maintains privacy through the use of a tunnelling protocol and security procedures. A VPN can provide the same capabilities of a corporate network at much lower cost by using the shared public infrastructure of the net rather than a private one.
Virtual Reality [via the technical term `virtual memory', prob. from the term `virtual image' in optics] 1. Common alternative to logical; often used to refer to the artificial objects (like addressable virtual memory larger than physical memory) simulated by a computer system as a convenient way to manage access to shared resources. 2. Simulated; performing the functions of something that isn’t really there. An imaginative child’s doll may be a virtual playmate. Oppose real. (Source:
Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML) A language that is used to create 3D effects on a website. (Source:
Virtual safe deposit box A service that provides secure online storage of important or confidential electronic documents. (Source:
Virtual world(s) Not real. The term ‘virtual’ is popular among computer scientists and is used in a wide variety of situations. In general, it distinguishes something that is merely conceptual from something that has physical reality.
Virus A cracker program that searches out other programs and `infects’ them, embedding a copy of itself in them. When these programs are executed, the embedded virus is executed too, thus propagating the `infection’. Unlike a worm, a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. It is propagated by vectors such as humans trading programs with their friends. The virus may do nothing but propagate itself and then allow the program to run normally. Usually, however, after propagating silently for a while, it starts doing things like writing cute messages on the terminal or playing strange tricks with the display (some viruses include nice display hacks). Many nasty viruses do irreversible damage, like nuking all the user’s files. (Source: The Daily Telegraph Electronic Business Manual)
Visitor The act of accessing and viewing a World Wide website. (Source:
Visual A drawn out piece of artwork, often a sketch showing how a finished printed item might appear. Sometimes called a Scamp.
Visual Basic Script (VB Script) Visual Basic Script. A language that is embedded in Web pages and is executed by the Browser as it displays the page. It can be used to make the Web page more dynamic and to validate the data that is typed into forms. It serves the same purpose as JavaScript. It is a subset of Visual Basic with one or two additions! (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Visualiser A trained artist whose specialism is the production of visuals. (Source:
VMNO See Virtual Mobile Network Operator.
VOD See Video On Demand.
Voice communication internet protocol See Voice Over Internet Protocol.
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Technology that supports the transmission of voice over networks running the IP protocol, such as the internet, with sufficient speed and continuity to permit twoway conversations such as a telephone call. Technology that allows the use of a broadband Internet connection to make telephone calls.
VOIP See Voice Over Internet Protocol.
Volume discount A price reduction for buying in larger quantities.
Vortal (Vertical Industry Portal, VIP) A portal website that provides information and resources for a particular industry. Vortals are the internet’s way of catering to consumers’ focused-environment preferences. Vortals typically provide news, research and statistics.
Voucher copy A copy of a publication sent to an advertiser as verification of advertisements appearing as and where agreed.
VPI See Virtual Private Internet.
VPL See Virtual Private Line.
VPN See Virtual Private Network.
VRML See Virtual Reality Mark-up Language.
VSAT See Very Small Aperture Satellite Antenna.
W/s Short for wire-stitched. Another term for stapled.
W3C See World Wide Web Consortium.
Walled Garden An approach planned by cable TV companies to offer free access, through the TV screen and a remote control device, to a limited set of Web sites, pages, and services. The approach will support localization of the offered Web sites and will allow the cable operators to charge merchants for making their Web sites available through the free service. For unlimited access to the World Wide Web consumers will need to pay a fee. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Wallet A type of envelope with the opening along the long edge. Easiest type to use for machine enclosing.
WAN See Wide Area Network
WAP See Wireless Application Protocol.
Warm colours Red and yellow shades.
Warm donors People who have previously supported a charity, and thus are considered to be more likely sources for future donations.
Warranty A promise or an agreement made by a marketer to a prospect, the breach of which entitles the buyer to make claims for replacement, compensation or repair against the warrantor.
Waterfall (software) development A sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall), through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Production/Implementation, and Maintenance. (
Watermark A semi-transparent design impressed into paper while the paper is being made.
WAV See Waveform Audio File Format.
Waveform Audio File Format (WAV) A popular audio file format. Considered a ‘first generation’ format, they are generally kept as the first digital copy of a file, completely uncompressed. This means that WAV files are the best possible quality and have not gone through any digital alterations except to be outputted. The downside of this type of compression is large file sizes. (Source:
Waves Part of a mailing that goes out at a number of different times – each despatch is called a wave.
We miss you letter A letter which is sent to former or dormant customers or subscribers to try to win back their custom, usually with an incentive.
Web A continuous sheet of paper on a roll or reel, rather than a series of cut sheets. Also a medium, i.e. website.
Web 2.0 Describes a host of user-driven technologies such as blogs, wikis, social bookmarking tools, syndication services and podcasting. Web 2.0 supports the internet’s capacity to be a two-way medium, enabling consumer creation and remixing of content (i.e. user-driven content environments), rather than just passively consuming it.
Web 2.0 Describes a host of user-driven technologies such as blogs, wikis, social bookmarking tools, syndication services and podcasting. Web 2.0 supports the internet’s capacity to be a two-way medium, enabling consumer creation and remixing of content (i.e. user-driven content environments), rather than just passively consuming it.
Web 3.0 An evolution of the Web 2.0 concept, Web 3.0 supports web functionality such as cloud computing, syndication, data integration and artificial intelligence-driven content and services provision to web users.
Web analytics The assessment of a variety of web data, including traffic, transactions, server performance and usability studies to help create an understanding of the visitor experience online.
Web based Requiring no software to access an online service or function, other than a web browser and access to the internet. (Source:
Web beacon A line of code which is used by a website or third-party ad server to track a user’s activity such as a registration or conversion. Aka web bug. (Source:
Web offset A printing process using a continuous reel of paper.
Web page A document that is stored in HTML format. It can contain text, images and hyperlinks. Web pages are usually grouped with other pages on the same theme to form a website.
Web portal A website or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as email, forums, search engines, and online shopping malls.
Web publishing Web publishing is publishing material on the internet, in the form of web pages.
Web Request Broker Oracle’s API for linking its WebServer to applications and databases. Web Request Broker bypasses the Common Gateway Interface. It enables a high-performance native connection to Oracle7 databases. Web Request Broker supports development languages such as Java, PL/SQL and C/C++, and provides an open API for building server objects to extend Oracle WebServer capabilities. (Source:
Web response campaign Offline print, TV, PR or direct mail campaign where one of the main campaign objectives is to encourage visits to your website, thereby generating interest, leads or sales.
Web ring Two or more websites connected by obvious links.
Web server A computer that manages a website. It passes web pages to browsers when they request them. The web pages are often stored on the web server but could be on another computer on the same network as the web server. (Source:
Web services Similar in principle to Application Service Provider (ASP) applications. Uses a common language most systems understand that is easy to implement, enabling an application to be accessed remotely from the server on which it is running.
Web year Like a dog year, a Web year is approximately one seventh of a calendar year. It refers to the period during which business practices on the Web evolve as much as practices in any other environment evolve in a standard year. (Source:
Web-based email Email that requires a user to log into a website rather than using the domain name and mail server on the network the user’s computer is connected to (frequently the domain name mail server of the user’s Internet Service Provider). Web-based Email allows the user to easily access email from any computer connected to the internet, regardless of location or type of connection. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Web-based personalisation Delivering customised content for the individual through web pages, email or push technology.
Web-wrap agreement The acceptance of a licence agreement by downloading the software to which it applies. The licence agreement must be available for viewing prior to the downloading.
Webcam A small camera that attaches to your PC, and which can record either still or moving images. With the right software, you can use a webcam for video-conferencing or for security observation purposes via the internet. (Source:
Webcasting The broadcasting of information over the internet using server push technology. The most common form of netcasting. (Source: Computer Active)
Webertising Using the web for advertising.
Webinar Virtual broadcast over the internet, either synchronously (live) or asynchronously (recorded), of seminars, demonstrations and presentations.
Webmaster The person (or team) who runs your website. The webmaster will probably need to know about web design, programming, digital paint packages, HTML, copy editing, site promotion, running discussion boards, developing email newsletters and keeping an overview on your online marketing strategy.
Website A collection of web pages which represent an organisation, individual or subject area.
Website briefing document Produced by the client to outline the reasons for the website build and the requirements for the project.
WebSpace A helper application from Silicon Graphics and Template Graphics which allows Web browsers to view three dimensional space modelled in VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language – see definition in hard copy of dictionary). (Source:
Wedged To be stuck a point, when using a computer, where progress cannot be made without help or intervention. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Weight The degree of boldness of a typeface style, eg Light, medium, etc. (Source:
Weight steps The tariff bands charged for mail, according to the weight of what is being mailed.
Weighting The process of assigning different values to data in accordance with its judged importance.
White list A list of accepted email addresses or domain names from which an email blocking program will allow messages to be received.
White mail A phrase which describes those letters received by mail order firms which result in extra administrative work. These include letters from prospects and customers which are complaints, enquiries or testimonials – usually on the customer’s own notepaper.
White out A method of printing so that an image or word appears light, against a solid or dark colour. Also known as reverse out.
White space The blank area without illustration or type around an advertisement or printed item. Also called ‘air’.
WHOIS++ An internet search architecture developed by Bunyip Information Systems. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Wide Area Network (WAN) A computer network that is spread over more than one location, e.g. linking offices of a company around the world. Often connected across the world by telephone lines or leased lines. The internet is the largest example.
Widescreen TV or signal with a wide picture (16:9 aspect ratio, instead of the usual 4:3).
Widget A standardised on-screen representation of a command, control or tool that may be manipulated by the user. For example, scroll bars, buttons, text boxes and other utilities.
Widow Term used in copy where a single word or short phrase is left alone on a line.
WiFi See Wireless Fidelity
Wiki Derived from the Hawaiian word for ‘fast’, an online encyclopaedia created by many web users. It is an open, public collaboration, authored and edited by users without the need for registration or subscription. Visitors can easily add, remove and otherwise edit content. A famous example is
Wilfing What was I looking for? Wilfing is an expression for browsing the internet with no real purpose – something many internet users are prone to.
Wire frame An HTML-based system of dividing a browser window into different panes to allow content to be split and actions in one window to affect another. Frames are often used to keep a menu frame or ad banner in the visitor’s line of sight. With the release of HTML5, frames became largely obsolete and are no longer considered good practice – with the exception of iFrames.( Source: based on a definition at See iFrame.
Wire stitched A binding method using wire which is formed automatically into staples.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Standard for providing mobile data services on hand-held devices. Brings internet content such as news, weather, travel, etc. to mobile phones and can also be used to deliver formatted content such as wallpapers, ringtones, video, games, portals and other useful links. (
Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) The ability to connect to the internet wirelessly. Internet ‘hotspots’ in coffee shops and airports etc. use this technology. (Source: IAB)
Wireless Mark-up Language (WML) A simplified version on HTML which is used on web pages to be displayed on a mobile phone. (Source:
With the grain A method of folding paper in parallel with the grain. (Source:
WML See Wireless Mark-up Language.
Woodfree Paper which contains no mechanical pulp
Word-break The division of a word at the end of a line which should occur between syllables.
Wordspace The space between words.
Workflow Workflow software can be used to analyse business procedures into a sequences of steps that should be taken under specific conditions and then support those procedures by ensuring that the correct steps are followed and by providing the correct forms and information to support the task. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
World Wide Web (WWW) The commercial application of the internet, supporting documents formatted in Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) enabling links to other documents as well as graphics, audio, and video files. The world wide web, email and newsgroups are all applications running over the internet.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) An international consortium of companies involved with the internet and the web. The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the original architect of the world wide web. The organisation’s purpose is to develop open standards for web use and compliance.
Wrap/wrap up The final results/conclusion of a campaign is a ‘wrap’.
Wraparound A second outside cover, e.g. for a mail order catalogue, which may contain another order form or special announcement etc.
Wrapping The insertion of magazines or other publications into wrappers for posting.
Wrong-reading The reverse of right-reading. Film which reads correctly from the reverse side when viewed from the emulsion side (i.e. from right to left).
WWW See World Wide Web.
WYSIWYG Pronounced ‘wizzy-wig’, stands for ‘what you see is what you get’. The term is used to describe applications that enable the user to see on-screen exactly how a document will look when printed or output to a particular application.
X date Has two meanings. For subscriptions, the date a member or subscriber ‘expires’. In direct mail, the date a particular offer will terminate.
X.435 A standard which enhances the ITU-TSS/ISO family of X.400 messaging protocols to better support electronic data interchange (EDI). (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
X9.17 A specification for private key encryption. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
X9.9 FIMAS A standard for protecting electronic funds transfers. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
XDSL See Other Digital Subscriber Line.
XFDL See Extensible Forms Description Language.
XHTML See Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.
Xlapse The number of people who are denied access to the internet at any one time multiplied by the number of hours service is denied (as in megalapse, gigalapse). The term was coined in 1996 by Bob Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet, to measure an interruption in service so devastating it would destroy the public’s trust in the internet by the end of the year. Incidents occurring earlier in 1996 included Netcom’s denial of service to 400,000 customers for thirteen hours and America Online’s taking 6.2 million users down for nineteen hours. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
XML See Extensible Mark-up Language.
XMOS See Cross-Media Optimization Studies.
Yes/no envelope A device designed to improve response, by requesting readers to reply regardless of whether they intend to take up an offer or not. The ‘no’ proves that they are responsive and is then used for different approaches in the future.
Yes/no stamp A stamp designed to attach to a card or coupon for a similar purpose to the yes/no envelope above.
Z fold A fold that resembles the letter Z. To make a Z fold paper is folded into three equal parts, so that the central third forms the ‘diagonal’ in the letter Z. Also known as a zigzag fold.
Z39.50 An ANSI standard query routing protocol for searching the internet based on the client/server model. Z39.50 is the basis for the WAIS search approach. It supports retention of the search history. See metadata. (Source: IDM Marketing Guide 2006)
Zine A shortened term for e-zine or electronic magazine.
Zip Process of compressing a file so it takes up less space, using one program such as WinZip and PKZip. (Source:
Zip code The American post code sy
Zip envelopes Envelopes opened by perforated flap mechanism.
Zipf’s Law In a list ordered or ranked by popularity, the second item will be about half the popularity of the first and the third will be about a third of the popularity of the first. In general, the kth item is 1/k the popularity of the first.
Zoetrope A mechanical optical device consisting of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides to produce an illusion of action from a rapidly rotating succession of static pictures.
Zombies Infected end-user machines that typically have dynamic IP addresses that change every time the user logs on, and which are thus difficult to track down. ‘Zombies’ are often used by spammers.



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